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  1. What's the Word? - WINKLE pronunciation: [WINK-əl] Part of speech: verb Origin: British, late 16th century Meaning: 1. Extract or obtain something with difficulty. 2. (Noun) A small herbivorous shore-dwelling mollusk with a spiral shell. Example: "The interrogator was used to winkling confessions out of the most hard boiled subjects." "The dock and side of the boat was freckled with winkles and barnacles." About Winkle This word originated from a shortening of the word “periwinkle” — a mollusk with a spiral shell usually found along shores and beaches. Did You Know? Ever considered singing “Winkle, winkle, little star”? Winkle’s other less-known meaning as a verb is something that “gleams or glows,” which means the substitution would work, as odd as it might sound!
  2. Fact of the Day - MOUNT RUSHMORE Did you know.... that Mount Rushmore National Memorial is centered on a colossal sculpture carved into the granite face of Mount Rushmore (Lakota Tȟuŋkášila Šákpe, or Six Grandfathers) in the Black Hills in Keystone, South Dakota. Sculptor Gutzon Borglum created the sculpture's design and oversaw the project's execution from 1927 to 1941 with the help of his son, Lincoln Borglum. The sculpture features the 60-foot (18 m) heads of Presidents George Washington (1732–1799), Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919) and Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865), as recommended by Borglum. The four presidents were chosen to represent the nation's birth, growth, development and preservation, respectively.[6] The memorial park covers 1,278 acres (2.00 sq mi; 5.17 km2) and the actual mountain has an elevation of 5,725 feet (1,745 m) above sea level. (Wikipedia) Facts About Mount Rushmore BY MARK MANCINI | JULY 13, 2020 Today, the faces of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt gaze over South Dakota’s Black Hills, their images sculpted on the granite slopes of Mount Rushmore. An engineering marvel, this unlikely landmark now draws millions of visitors every year. But the place casts a dark shadow. Built by a Ku Klux Klan sympathizer on land seized from the Sioux during a gold rush, Mount Rushmore is steeped in controversy. Here are 11 little-known facts about its creation and history. 1. THE LAKOTA OF THE GREAT SIOUX NATION CALL THIS MOUNTAIN TȞUŊKÁŠILA ŠÁKPE, OR “SIX GRANDFATHERS.” 1905 photo of the Six Grandfathers, before construction began on the Mount Rushmore National Memorial. When New York attorney Charles E. Rushmore first laid eyes on the landform in 1884, the presidential sculpting effort was decades away. Reportedly, the visiting lawyer asked his guides if the mountain had a name. Unaware of its importance to the Sioux, they said no—and then one of them added, “We will name it now, and name it Rushmore Peak.” Over time, this evolved into “Mount Rushmore.” 2. MOUNT RUSHMORE’S HEAD SCULPTOR, GUTZON BORGLUM, PREVIOUSLY WORKED ON A HUGE CONFEDERATE MONUMENT. Georgia’s Stone Mountain bears a 158-by-76-foot carving of Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, and their horses. Borglum came up with the basic concept after the Daughters of the Confederacy asked him to sculpt Lee’s head into the rockface. But on February 25, 1925, 10 years into the project, Borglum was fired after disputes with the organization. Stone Mountain was finished without his involvement; then-Vice President Spiro Agnew attended its dedication ceremony in 1970. 3. THE IDEA FOR MOUNT RUSHMORE BEGAN WITH SOUTH DAKOTA'S HISTORIAN. Borglum's model of Mount Rushmore. Intrigued by Stone Mountain, Jonah LeRoy “Doane” Robinson, South Dakota’s official State Historian, contacted Borglum in 1924. The Black Hills were already a tourist destination, but Robinson wanted an audacious new draw. Turning some local geologic features into a lineup of statues depicting western legends like Buffalo Bill Cody, Sacagawea, Red Cloud, Meriwether Lewis, and William Clark sounded like a good business move to Robinson. But Borglum had other ideas. In addition to changing the monument's proposed location—he opted for Mount Rushmore instead of the nearby granite spires Robinson had chosen—he also changed the people depicted. Feeling the place should be a “national monument commemorating America’s founders and builders,” the sculptor went with a presidential theme. 4. GUTZON BORGLUN LIKED MOUNT RUSHMORE BECAUSE OF ITS PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES. South Dakota is full of mountains, so why was the monument built on this one? For starters, Borglum realized it was sturdy enough to withstand the rigorous sculpting process. He also liked the fact that Mount Rushmore’s southeastern flank (where the faces now stand) gets good sun exposure. The mountain's fine-grained Harvey Peak granite also influenced Borglun's choice: Though the material was more difficult to carve, it would erode slower than the granite found on other nearby peaks. 5. CONSTRUCTION ON MOUNT RUSHMORE BEGAN IN 1927. It officially ended on October 31, 1941. Borglum unexpectedly died that March, leaving his son, Lincoln, to oversee the last few months of production. 6. ELEANOR ROOSEVELT WANTED SUSAN B. ANTHONY ON MOUNT RUSHMORE. Washington’s head was the first part of the monument to be dedicated, followed by Jefferson’s, Lincoln’s, and finally Roosevelt’s. Meanwhile, a different Roosevelt wanted Susan B. Anthony to join their ranks. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt wrote to Borglum in 1936, asking him to include the prominent suffragist’s likeness. A bill reiterating this plea was introduced to Congress the following year, but it didn’t get far due to funding restrictions. 7. THE CONSTRUCTION CREW USED A TECHNIQUE CALLED “HONEYCOMBING” TO CARVE MOUNT RUSHMORE. In addition to sculpting these four heads, the workers also carved out a secret room behind the monument. Dynamite cleared away 90 percent of the unwanted rock, but some tasks were ill-suited for explosives. Once they came within 3 to 6 inches of the desired depth, Borglum’s workers would drill shallow holes in tightly packed rows. Known as “honeycombing,” this trick allowed them to pull off chunks of granite with their bare hands. 8. MOUNT RUSHMORE ONCE HAD ITS OWN BASEBALL TEAM. While at Rushmore, Borglum and his son organized a baseball team made up entirely of their day-laborers. In 1939, the “Rushmore Drillers” had a great summer, qualifying for the semifinals in South Dakota’s Amateur Baseball Tournament. 9. MOUNT RUSHMORE IS JUST TWO COUNTIES AWAY FROM THE U.S.’S GEOGRAPHIC CENTER. Alaska and Hawaii became states in 1959, shifting the geographic center of the U.S. from Smith County, Kansas, to Butte County, South Dakota. The exact spot is located on private land, but roughly 20 miles to the south—in the nearby city of Belle Fourche, South Dakota—there’s a compass-shaped monument honoring America’s midpoint. By car, that attraction’s only 79.4 miles from Mount Rushmore, the most iconic spot in Pennington County. 10. THE LAST SURVIVING MOUNT RUSHMORE CARVER DIED IN 2019. A prominent member of those Rushmore Drillers, Donald “Nick” Clifford was a right-fielder and the youngest carver ever to work on the monument. He was hired in 1938 at the tender age of 17. Clifford outlived all of his Mount Rushmore co-workers and died in 2019 at 98 years old. 11. NATIVE AMERICANS ACTIVISTS OCCUPIED MOUNT RUSHMORE IN 1970. The 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie set aside South Dakota’s Black Hills, Mount Rushmore included, for the exclusive use of indigenous people. Yet the United States hastily redrew the agreed-upon boundaries when General George A. Custer found gold in the region six years later. In 1980, the Supreme Court ruled the U.S. government had acted illegally. As per the ruling, a compensation trust now worth over $1 billion was set aside for the Sioux. That money has never been collected. Ten years before that Supreme Court decision, a group of 23 Native American activists climbed Mount Rushmore on August 29, 1970. Demanding that the land be restored to the Sioux, the group defied federal regulations and set up camp atop the mountain. Protestors remained at the site until that November, when bad weather finally drove them out. According to Lehman Brightman, the former President of the United Native Americans organization and one of the event’s architects, it was “the first Sioux Indian uprising” since Custer’s lifetime. Source: Wikipedia - Mount Rushmore | Mount Rushmore Facts
  3. Fact of the Day - EIFFEL TOWER Did you know.... that the Eiffel Tower is a wrought-iron https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lattice_towerlattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower. Locally nicknamed "La dame de fer" (French for "Iron Lady"), it was constructed from 1887 to 1889 as the entrance to the 1889 World's Fair and was initially criticized by some of France's leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but it has become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognizable structures in the world. The Eiffel Tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world; 6.91 million people ascended it in 2015. (Wikipedia) Monumental Facts About the Eiffel Tower BY BENJAMIN LAMPKIN | MARCH 31, 2017 | (UPDATED: MARCH 29, 2019) On March 31, 1889, the Eiffel Tower opened to the public. Below are some things you might not know about the beloved monument. 1. THE TOWER WAS BUILT AS AN ENTRANCE ARCH FOR THE 1889 WORLD'S FAIR. To mark the 100th anniversary of the French Revolution, Paris hosted the 1889 World’s Fair (Exposition Universelle). Hoping to be considered for the high-profile project, artists from around the nation sent in plans for a structure to mark the entrance to the fair on the Champ-de-Mars, a public greenspace in the center of Paris. 2. IT WAS DESIGNED AND BUILT BY THE FIRM EIFFEL ET COMPAGNIE. The commission was given to the consulting and construction firm owned by Gustave Eiffel, a bridge builder, architect, and metals expert. Eiffel also worked in the early 1880s on the Garabit Viaduct, a bridge in the Massif Central region that was, at the time, the highest bridge in the world. Prior to landing the World's Fair project, he also helped design the Statue of Liberty. 3. GUSTAVE EIFFEL REJECTED THE INITIAL DESIGN. The tower's main designer was one of Eiffel’s employees, senior engineer Maurice Koechlin. Engineer Emile Nouguier and the head of the company’s architectural department, Stephen Sauvestre, were also consulted. After viewing Koechlin's initial sketches—which Eiffel felt were too minimalist—the architect instructed Koechlin to include more details and flourishes in his redesign. Eiffel approved the final design in 1884. 4. THE PROJECT REQUIRED LOTS OF METAL (AND LOTS OF MANPOWER). Three hundred steel workers spent two years, two months and five days, from 1887 to 1889, constructing the Tower. They used more than 18,000 individual metallic parts, 2.5 million rivets, and 40 tons of paint. 5. ITS ORIGINAL HEIGHT WAS 985 FEET. Upon its completion in March 1889, the Tower measured 300 meters (985 feet) high. Surprisingly, this measurement isn't static: Cold weather can shrink the Tower by up to six inches. 6. IT WAS THE TALLEST STRUCTURE IN THE WORLD UNTIL 1930. For 41 years, the Eiffel Tower stood higher than any building or structure in the world—until it was surpassed by the Chrysler Building in New York, which topped out at 1046 feet. Just a year later the Empire State Building became the tallest in the world at 1454 feet with the spire. In 1957 an antenna was added that increased the Tower’s height by 67 feet, making it 6 feet taller than the Chrysler Building. 7. A 300-MEMBER COMMITTEE PROTESTED THE TOWER. Led by author Guy de Maupassant, Alexandre Dumas, Jr., and hundreds of other artists and intellectuals, a petition opposing the project was signed and sent to the Parisian government. They called the Tower “useless and monstrous,” but their protests fell on deaf ears. 8. THE TOWER WAS AN IMMEDIATE HIT. Despite the petition, the 1889 World’s Fair was deemed a great success, thanks largely to the Tower's imposing presence. Nearly 2 million people visited the Eiffel Tower during the Fair and spent $1.4 million on tickets, making the 1889 Fair one of the few to actually turn a profit. 9. IT WAS ONLY SUPPOSED TO STAND FOR 20 YEARS. The Eiffel Tower was never intended to stand over the Champ-de-Mars permanently, and was scheduled to be dismantled in 1909—that is, until someone realized that its apex was the perfect place for a telegraphy antenna. During the First World War, at the First Battle of the Marnes in 1914, the wireless telegraph transmitter helped jam German communications. 10. IT MOVES! Eiffel, a renowned expert on aerodynamics, published “The Resistance of the Air” in 1913. He and his team designed the Tower to withstand even the strongest winds, and never sway more than 4.5 inches. 11. THERE ARE THREE LEVELS. The 7 million people who visit the Eiffel Tower every year can now travel to three different sections of the Tower at three different heights. The first level is 189 feet high and includes an observation area, a reception room named after Gustave Eiffel, souvenir shops, an art show, a restaurant (58 Tour Eiffel) and a transparent floor. The second floor, at 379 feet, includes another observation area and Le Jules Verne restaurant. The top level offers amazing panoramic views at 905 feet high and a champagne bar, where you can grab a glass of white or rosé (just expect to pay up to $25 per glass). 12. SOME WEIRD EVENTS HAVE TAKEN PLACE THERE. The tower has drawn its share of daredevils (Pierre Labric, the future mayor of Montmartre, was arrested for cycling down its stairs in 1923) and overly-enthusiastic admirers. In 2007, a woman with an "objectum sexual" married the tower and changed her name to Erika La Tour Eiffel. 13. THE TOWER GETS A FRESH PAINT OF COAT EVERY SEVEN YEARS. About 60 tons of paint are needed to freshen the monument, which is owned by the City of Paris and operated by a public utility called the Société d'Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel (SETE). More than 500 people work for the SETE, as tour guides, security, in the post office, and in the Tower’s restaurants, shops, and boutiques. 14. THE TOWER WAS CLOSED DURING THE GERMAN OCCUPATION. French resistance fighters cut the cables for the Eiffel Tower’s lifts so Nazi officers and soldiers had to climb the stairs, and the monument was closed to the public during the occupation from 1940 to 1944. Hitler actually ordered the military governor of Paris, Dietrich von Choltitz, to destroy the Tower, along with the rest of the city; fortunately, his order wasn’t carried out. 15. THE ICONIC STRUCTURE IS BELOVED BY FILMMAKERS. James Bond chased an assassin through the Tower in A View to a Kill. A murder-mystery called The Man on the Eiffel Tower was released in 1949 and starred future Penguin Burgess Meredith. A scene from The Lavender Hill Mob, which featured future Oscar winners Alec Guinness and Audrey Hepburn, was filmed there. Hundreds of other films have used the Tower as a prop, or a backdrop. Source: Wikipedia - Eiffel Tower | Eiffel Tower Facts
  4. What's the Word? - SOCKDOLAGER pronunciation: [sahk-DOL-e-jər] Part of speech: noun Origin: American English, mid 19th century Meaning: 1. An exceptional person or thing. 2. A forceful blow. Example: "All of the nominees tonight are well-accomplished sockdolagers." "The car door hit Randy with a sockdolager that knocked the wind out of him." About Sockdolager It is believed that sockdolager developed as a fanciful formation from “sock.” How the word became associated with an exceptional person or a forceful blow is unknown. Did You Know? To find a sockdolager, you need not look much further than the Nobel Prizes. People and companies who qualify for nomination are exceptional in their actions and impact, and have often found a way to contribute to humanity’s progress in a particular field. Some notable recipients include activist Malala Yousafzai, writer Ernest Hemingway, and scientist Albert Einstein.
  5. Fact of the Day - THE AFRICAN QUEEN (FILM) Hepburn and Bogart in a publicity still for the film. Did you know... that The African Queen is a 1951 British–American adventure film adapted from the 1935 novel of the same name by C. S. Forester. The film was directed by John Huston and produced by Sam Spiegel and John Woolf. The screenplay was adapted by James Agee, John Huston, John Collier and Peter Viertel. It was photographed in Technicolor by Jack Cardiff and has a music score by Allan Gray. The film stars Humphrey Bogart (who won the Academy Award for Best Actor – his only Oscar) and Katharine Hepburn with Robert Morley, Peter Bull, Walter Gotell, Richard Marner and Theodore Bikel. The African Queen was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry in 1994, with the Library of Congress deeming it "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant". (Wikipedia) All Aboard These African Queen Facts BY: MOVIES! STAFF POSTED: DECEMBER 13, 2020 Considered an underdog film at the time that the studio didn’t know how to market, The African Queen floated into movie theaters with great success, even earning an Oscar win for Humphrey Bogart and Oscar nominations for Katharine Hepburn and director John Huston. 1. THE BOOK WAS ALMOST ADAPTED EARLIER. Bette Davis and husband-wife duo, Charles Laughton and Elsa Lancaster, were interested in starring in adaptions of C. S. Forester’s 1935 novel. After John Huston mentioned his desire to direct the piece, producer Sam Spiegel bought the rights with Humphrey Bogart in mind for the lead. It was considered an independent film, which was especially rare during the studio era. 2. THE LEAD CHANGED TO FIT BOGIE. Originally, the male lead had a cockney accent. However, Spiegel wanted Bogart and the part changed to accommodate him. Katharine Hepburn said, “[Can] you imagine anyone but Bogie playing the part? He was really it – hook, line and sinker.” Hepburn didn’t know Bogart or Huston at the time, but also got the part through Spiegel, after he sent her the book to read. 3. THEY SHOT PARTS IN AFRICA. It was especially rare at the time to shoot on location, and even more rare to go to Africa. Hepburn felt that the movie had to be made on the continent for authenticity sake, but she also just wanted to travel there. In fact, she accepted the part before the script (which she wasn’t quite satisfied with) was even finished. She even played golf while there. While many scenes were filmed in Africa, some had to be shot in California. 4. BACALL JOINED THE TRIP. Bogie and Lauren Bacall were married in 1945, and the two made quite the Hollywood romance. Hepburn remembered, “She and Bogie seemed to have the most enormous opinion of each other’s charms, and when they fought it was with the utter confidence of two cats locked deliciously in the same cage.” Bacall didn’t just come for the view though. She assisted with getting food for the busy crew and acting as a nurse when many fell ill. 5. ROBERT MORLEY WANTED TO WORK WITH HEPBURN. Hepburn was surprised Morley accepted his part because, as she put it, he was a “big London star”. In fact, Morley joined the production late because he was performing in The Little Hut in London, and a double was used for the burial scene. When Hepburn asked why he accepted the role, he said it would be “rather fun to play your brother”. Too bad his character didn’t last long. 6. THEY STAYED OUT OF THE WATER. Bilharzia is a bug found in polluted water that can enter a host through their pores. Even worse, they can cause boils in the urinary tract and in some cases, be fatal. As a result, scenes that required the leads to be in water were filmed in a tank at the studio. However, the first water tank burst, but thankfully, no one was injured. 7. BUGS WERE A BUG. Thankfully, the leeches used on their bodies were rubber. However, real bugs were still an issue. Bogie got a jigger between his toes. A local was able to remove the pest though, which was important, as incorrectly doing so could have led to blood poisoning. Soldier ants were also an issue. After being away, Bogie and Bacall returned to their hut to find it covered in ants. Hepburn was bitten severely by ants when they invaded her hut, but her costumes covered the bites. 8. HEPBURN FOUND INSPIRATION FROM MRS. ROOSEVELT. Huston worried that if Hepburn played her part too angrily the changing relationship between the leads wouldn’t feel natural. So he likened her character to Eleanor Roosevelt and called out the smile that she often wore when visiting the wounded, despite her insecurities about her beauty. The direction helped Kate, and she called it the best pierce of direction that she ever heard. “I was his from there on in,” she said. 9. THE FILM INSPIRED A BOOK. Peter Viertel was an uncredited screenwriter for The African Queen that was brought in to help craft the ending of the film. Viertel was so influenced by the experience that he crafted a fictional account entitled White Hunter Black Heart and ran the manuscript by John Huston for his approval. Huston suggested changes, which to his surprise made the Huston-character less likable. The novel was adapted in 1990 with Clint Eastwood as the Huston-character. 10. HUAC INFLUENCED THE FILM. In the 1940s, McCarthyism’s spotlight fell on Hollywood. Links and perceived links to communism ended or derailed the careers of actors, writers, and directors. Even Huston, Bogart, Bacall, and Hepburn were suspected of having ties to Communism because of their ideology. Some view The African Queen as their response, since the main characters come up against and prevail over the Germans. 11. THERE WERE MULTIPLE “BOATS”. A boat built in 1912 was purchased and named The African Queen. However, it was impossible to fit the crew for lights, camera, and sound on the boat, and so parts of the boat were built on a raft that had enough space. It wasn’t easy work, and they had to deal with engine problems, tangled propellers, hornets, other boats in the way, and even their own boat sinking. There was also a small miniature boat used for shots of them going through rough rapids. Watch the movie! Source: Wikipedia - The African Queen (film) | The African Queen Facts
  6. What's the Word? - HEURISTIC pronunciation: [hyoo-RIS-tik] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Greek, early 19th century Meaning: 1. Enabling a person to discover or learn something for themselves. 2. A heuristic process or method. Example: "The pottery professor’s heuristic technique helped students discover their own sculpting style." "This heuristic will help interested parties become better writers." About Heuristic Heuristic developed from the Greek word “heuriskein,” or “find.” Did You Know? Self-education doesn’t have to be difficult. People attempting to self-educate themselves benefit from a heuristic method, which includes action items like goal-setting, committing to consistency, and minimizing distractions to maximize focus.
  7. Fact of the Day - STAGECOACH (FILM) George Bancroft, John Wayne and Louise Platt in Stagecoach (1939) Did you know.... that Stagecoach is a 1939 American Western film directed by John Ford and starring Claire Trevor and John Wayne in his breakthrough role. The screenplay by Dudley Nichols is an adaptation of "The Stage to Lordsburg", a 1937 short story by Ernest Haycox. The film follows a group of strangers riding on a stagecoach through dangerous Apache territory. Stagecoach was the first of many Westerns that Ford shot using Monument Valley, in the American Southwest on the Arizona–Utah border, as a location, many of which also starred John Wayne. Scenes from Stagecoach, including a sequence introducing John Wayne's character the Ringo Kid, blended shots of Monument Valley with shots filmed on the Iverson Movie Ranch in Chatsworth, California, RKO Encino Movie Ranch, and other locations. Similar geographic incongruencies are evident throughout the film, up to the closing scene of Ringo (Wayne) and Dallas (Trevor) departing Lordsburg, in southwestern New Mexico, by way of Monument Valley. The film has long been recognized as an important work that transcends the Western genre. Philosopher Robert B. Pippin has observed that both the collection of characters and their journey "are archetypal rather than merely individual" and that the film is a "mythic representation of the American aspiration toward a form of politically meaningful equality." In 1995, the film was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in their National Film Registry. Still, Stagecoach has not avoided controversy. Like most Westerns of the era, its depiction of Native Americans has been criticized. (Wikipedia) Facts About Stagecoach April 1, 2018 Orson Welles argued that Stagecoach was a perfect textbook of filmmaking and claimed to have watched the movie more than 40 times in preparation for the making of Citizen Kane. Asked why, in the climactic chase scene, the Indians didn’t simply shoot the horses to stop the stagecoach, director John Ford replied, “Because that would have been the end of the movie.” In addition, Apaches would have stolen the stagecoach horses because, in their culture, horses were valuable in determining a warrior’s worth. Local Navajo Indians played the Apaches. The film’s production was a huge economic boost to the local impoverished population, giving jobs to hundreds of locals as extras and handymen. Stagecoach was John Wayne’s 80th movie. The hat that John Wayne wears is his own. He would wear it in many Westerns during the next two decades before retiring it after Howard Hawks’ Rio Bravo, because it was simply “falling apart.” After that, the hat was displayed under glass in his home. The interior sets all have ceilings, an unusual practice at the time for studio filming. This was to create a claustrophobic effect in complete counterpoint to the wide open expanse of Monument Valley. Hosteen Tso, a local shaman, promised John Ford the exact kind of cloud formations he wanted. They duly appeared. Near the end of the movie, Luke Plummer has a pair of black aces and a pair of black eights. This is the notorious “dead man’s hand” supposed to have been held by Wild Bill Hickok before he was killed. John Wayne’s salary was considerably less than all of his co-stars, apart from John Carradine. John Ford loved the Monument Valley location so much that the actual stagecoach journey traverses the valley three times. Thomas Mitchell had stopped drinking alcohol for more than two years before he played the drunken Doc Boone. John Ford originally wanted Ward Bond to play Buck the stage driver but gave the role to Andy Devine when he found that Bond couldn’t drive a “six-up” stagecoach and there wasn’t enough time to teach him. Andy Devine was borrowed from Universal, John Carradine was borrowed from Twentieth Century Fox and John Wayne was borrowed from Republic. Louise Platt, who played the very proper Mrs. Lucy Mallory, wasn’t quite so prim off-camera. Observing John Wayne on the set one day, Platt turned to Claire Trevor and said, “I think he has the most beautiful buttocks I have ever seen.” The movie was originally budgeted at $392,000, but it cost over $500,000 to make. The movie grossed nearly $1 million by the end of 1939, earning the biggest profit of any Walter Wanger film production to that date. John Ford was so pleased with the way Yakima Canutt solved the problem of safely shooting the stagecoach’s river crossing that he gave Yakima carte blanche in creating all the stunts for the movie. Louise Platt, in a letter recounting the experience of the film’s production, quoted John Ford on saying of John Wayne’s future in film: “He’ll be the biggest star ever because he is the perfect everyman.” John Ford asked David O. Selznick to produce the movie. Selznick was interesting in making the movie, but only if he could have Gary Cooper as the Ringo Kid and Marlene Dietrich as Dallas. In 1939, Claire Trevor was Stagecoach’s biggest star and commanded the highest salary. Stagecoach is the first of three movies in which John Wayne and Claire Trevor were paired as romantic partners. Stagecoach made John Wayne a major star, 9 years after the failure of The Big Trail. In making the Ringo Kid, John Ford referred back to a silent era Western hero he made with Harry Carey called Cheyenne Harry. The interior scenes of the coach were all shot in a studio, and the town sequences were shot on Hollywood backlots. Producer Walter Wanger wanted Gary Cooper for the role of Ringo but Cooper’s fees were too high. Bruce Cabot unsuccessfully tested for it before John Ford got his wish and cast John Wayne. Joel McCrea and Errol Flynn turned down the role of The Ringo Kid. Source: Wikipedia - Stagecoach (1939 film) | Fun And Interesting Facts About Stagecoach
  8. What's the Word? - SYNECDOCHE pronunciation: [sə-NEK-də-kee] Part of speech: noun Origin: Late Middle English, 1350s Meaning: 1. A figure of speech in which a part is made to represent the whole or vice versa. Example: "The team’s full name is the Jacksonville Jaguars, but they are often referred to by the synecdoche, “Jaguars.”" "The brand manager decided that the maple leaf logo could serve as a synecdoche for the tourism committee." About Synecdoche While synecdoche became widely used through Late Middle English, it originated from the Greek word “sunekdokhē”— a combination of the words “sun” (together) and “ekdekhesthai” (to take up). Did You Know? Despite the complicated spelling of the word, synecdoche is used quite commonly. Some examples are saying America when referring to the United States, saying a statement has been put out by the company when one means a spokesperson, and referring to sports teams by their nicknames.
  9. Fact of the Day - MICROBURSTS ALSO CALLED DOWNBURSTS Illustration of a microburst. The air moves in a downward motion until it hits ground level. It then spreads outward in all directions. The wind regime in a microburst is opposite to that of a tornado. Did you know... that in meteorology, a downburst is a strong ground-level wind system that emanates from a point source above and blows radially, that is, in straight lines in all directions from the point of contact at ground level. Often producing damaging winds, it may be confused with a tornado, where high-velocity winds circle a central area, and air moves inward and upward; by contrast, in a downburst, winds are directed downward and then outward from the surface landing point. Downbursts are created by an area of significantly rain-cooled air that, after reaching ground level (subsiding), spreads out in all directions producing strong winds. Dry downbursts are associated with thunderstorms with very little rain, while wet downbursts are created by thunderstorms with high amounts of rainfall. Microbursts and macrobursts are downbursts at very small and larger scales, respectively. Another variety, the heat burst, is created by vertical currents on the backside of old outflow boundaries and squall lines where rainfall is lacking. Heat bursts generate significantly higher temperatures due to the lack of rain-cooled air in their formation. Downbursts create vertical wind shear or microbursts, which is dangerous to aviation, especially during landing, due to the wind shear caused by its gust front. Several fatal and historic crashes have been attributed to the phenomenon over the past several decades, and flight crew training goes to great lengths on how to properly recognize and recover from a microburst/wind shear event. They usually last for seconds to minutes. (Wikipedia) Facts About Microbursts By Traci Pedersen | August 27, 2016 Debris from downbursts, or microbursts, is commonly blown in one direction. Often there will be an impact point with debris spread downwind in a fanned or divergent pattern. Microbursts, also called downbursts, are powerful, localized columns of wind that occur when cooled air drops from the base of a thunderstorm at incredible speeds — up to 60 mph — and subsequently hits the ground, spreading out in all directions. Once this column of air reaches the ground (or body of water) and fans outward, it produces straight winds that can reach up to 100 mph, equivalent in speed to an EF1 tornado on the Enhanced Fujita scale, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Strong microbursts are capable of creating havoc for miles, knocking down trees, power lines and fences and causing extreme damage to buildings. Microbursts can occur all over the United States but are more common east of the Rocky Mountains, simply because there are more thunderstorms on this side. What’s in a name? The term “microburst” was coined by Ted Fujita, a severe storm researcher who developed the Fujita tornado intensity scale. It was upgraded to the Enhanced Fujita scale in 2007 and ranges from EF0 to EF5. An EF0 tornado may damage trees but not buildings, with winds ranging up to 85 mph (137 km/h). An EF5 tornado is devastating; winds exceed 200 mph (322 km/h), and buildings can be annihilated. As the name suggests, a microburst is a relatively small weather event, lasting anywhere from a few seconds to several minutes and affecting 2.5 miles or less. For downbursts affecting areas greater than 2.5 miles, Fujita used the term “macroburst.” How do microbursts form? The most common weather event leading to microburst development is dry air entrainment, a phenomenon that occurs when dry air mixes with precipitation in a thundercloud. The dry air causes the droplets to evaporate, resulting in a rapid drop in air temperature. This patch of cooled air begins to sink, gaining momentum as it drops and essentially turning into a speeding column of air. Air flows in and around a convective cloud. William Gallus, a professor of meteorology and numerical weather prediction in the department of geological and atmospheric sciences at Iowa State University, explains this phenomenon: “Cool air is heavier than warm air, so this blob of cold air can plunge toward the ground, and it spreads out rapidly when it hits the ground, kind of like how water explodes sideways when a water balloon is dropped and hits the ground,” he told Live Science. When this cool, dry air is further pulled down by the weight of precipitation, it is called water loading, and this causes the air to drop even faster. Wet and dry microbursts Microbursts are divided into two basic types: wet and dry. Depending on where you are in the country will determine which type you are more likely to encounter. Wet microbursts are more common in humid climates where there are plenty of thunderstorms, such as the Southeastern United States. These microbursts are typically driven by both dry air entrainment and water loading. Dry microbursts usually begin with dry air entrainment due to moisture in the upper levels but eventually turn into wind-driven events with no surface precipitation. “For dry microbursts, we know they are more likely when the relative humidity a few thousand feet up in the sky is rather high, but it is much lower (dryer) below that level, especially near the ground. This kind of situation happens relatively often in places like Denver,” said Gallus. “When this happens, a storm can form from the moisture up high, but as it creates rain, the rain falls into the very dry air near the ground, and it evaporates, which cools the air.” Precipitation that evaporates before it hits the ground is called virga. Some microbursts, known as hybrids, have characteristics of both wet and dry types and are driven by several influences, such as dry air entrainment, precipitation loading, cooling beneath the cloud base and/or sublimation (ice crystals turning directly into vapor), according to NOAA. Microburst or tornado? Though less well-known than tornadoes, microbursts are much more common. According to the National Weather Service, there are approximately 10 microburst reports for every one tornado, but these numbers are just an estimate. “There has not been a detailed study done to look at how many happen on average each year in different areas, but it is believed a lot of wind damage happening in thunderstorms is likely due to microbursts, so that our climatology of wind damage from storms might give us a good idea [of their frequency],” Gallus said. In fact, microbursts can cause so much damage that residents often believe they’ve been struck by a tornado. The surest way of knowing whether it was a tornado or a microburst, however, is by studying the pattern of damage. When a tornado hits, it leaves behind a more circular or meandering pattern of destruction and debris, while microburst winds cause straight-line damage that radiates from a center point of impact. Disasters in the sky The study of microbursts is relatively new in the field of atmospheric science. Before the introduction of Doppler radar at airports just a few decades ago, microbursts were responsible for as many as 20 major airline accidents, resulting in over 500 deaths, according to the National Science Foundation (NSF). Many of these had been mistakenly blamed on pilot error. Microbursts still pose an incredible danger to aircraft, particularly during a take-off or landing. With winds up to 100 mph, trying to maneuver through a strong microburst is about as difficult as flying through a tornado. And like tornadoes, microburst development can be difficult to detect on radar and seem to come out of nowhere. One terrible disaster in particular — the crash of Delta Airlines Flight 191 — is credited with speeding up microburst research as well as bringing stronger safety measures for all aircraft. The disaster happened in August 1985. A thunderstorm was hovering over Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport as the pilots of Flight 191 were preparing to land. As the aircraft descended toward the runway, an explosive downdraft of wind knocked the plane full of passengers to the ground, sending the aircraft careening onto a highway where it hit and killed an automobile driver and plowed into two large water tanks where it burst into flames. Only 27 people survived this horrific event, and 137 lives were lost. While most pilots at this time had been highly trained in wind shear — rapid changes in wind speed or direction — surprisingly little was known about the specific dangers of microbursts. The crash of Delta 191 was a turning point, calling for more scientific research on these small but potentially fatal weather phenomena. Soon after, it was required that all planes be equipped with wind shear detection devices. Thanks to better research and advancements in technology, including the introduction of Doppler radar in 1988, the airways are much safer today. The last U.S. commercial airline to crash from a microburst was USAir Flight 1016 in 1994. Forecasting microbursts Even with today’s advanced technology, detecting microbursts is still a difficult task. Not only are they a relatively small phenomenon, but they are also quick to form. “It is very hard to predict microbursts,” Gallus said. “We can predict that an environment is somewhat favorable for microbursts, but we cannot tell in advance which exact locations will get hit by one, and not all storms will produce one even on a day when we say conditions are favorable. So it is a lot like forecasting tornadoes, except that conditions that support microbursts happen more often than those that support tornadoes.” When forecasters are searching for ripe conditions, radar is the most helpful tool. They look for several factors, including air instability, high PW or precipitable water (a prediction of precipitation levels based on moisture in the atmosphere), dry air in middle levels, and strong winds in the layer of dry air, according to NOAA. The perfect conditions usually occur in the hot and humid summer months, especially in the Southeastern states. Forecasting Microburst Potential Forecasting for microbursts is typically done on a near-term basis, generally within 6-12 hours before convection is expected to develop. There are several atmospheric parameters that forecasters use to help determine the microburst potential on any given day, primarily during the summer months. Instability, high precipitable water (PW), dry air in the mid levels, and strong winds in the dry layer are just a few of the parameters necessary for the development of microbursts. The ideal conditions typically come together during hot and humid summertime afternoons in the Southeast. An actual microburst in the works will give specific clues to the forecasters. “Radar can show air colliding a few thousand feet above the ground, which normally would mean some of the air is forced downward,” Gallus told Live Science. “Radar also can show air diverging or spreading out in the lowest part of the atmosphere, near the ground, which again is a sign that a microburst is happening.” Radar does have some limitations when it comes to microbursts, though. For example, if a microburst forms on the outskirts of a radar’s reach, it may look so small that the meteorologist can’t see it, Gallus said. Also, since they form so quickly, one could hit the ground before a forecaster has time to issue a warning. When interpreting radar data, forecasters look for converging air within the mid levels of the thunderstorm, also known as a mid-altitude radial convergence (MARC) signature. These can be very hard to detect since microbursts are so short-lived and can sometimes occur between radar scans. Therefore, unfortunately, Severe Thunderstorm Warning lead times for microbursts can be very short, or there may be no warning at all. Our understanding of microburst formation and detection continues to increase and will hopefully lead to better lead times in the future. When a microburst reaches the ground, a divergence signature can be seen on radar. In the image to the right, you can see the divergent wind pattern in velocity near ground level from two different storms. The bright red indicates winds blowing away from the radar, and the bright green indicates winds blowing toward the radar. Another helpful tool for detecting microbursts is DCAPE (Downdraft Convective Available Potential Energy), a computation used to estimate the potential strength of downdrafts in thunderstorms. “DCAPE gives us an idea of how much negative buoyancy can happen, which means how much cooler can a blob of air get due to evaporative cooling than the background temperature,” Gallus said. Source: Wikipedia - Downburst | Live Science - Microburst Facts
  10. What's the Word? - INOSCULATE pronunciation: [in-AHS-kə-layt] Part of speech: verb Origin: Latin, late 17th century Meaning: 1. Join by intertwining or fitting closely together. Example: "The two trees had grown so closely together that they were inosculated." "The toymakers shaped the product so that the pieces would inosculate while stored." About Inosculate Inosculate developed from a combination of the words “into” and the Latin word “osculare,” which means “to provide with a mouth or outlet.” Did You Know? Many living creatures inosculate in a symbiotic relationship, depending on each other to survive and thrive. For example, remora fish share a symbiotic relationship with sharks and some whales; they attach themselves onto the larger animal, helping to keep them clean and seeking shelter from predators.
  11. Fact of the Day - PODCASTING Did you know... that podcasting, previously known as "audioblogging", has its roots dating back to the 1980s. With the advent of broadband Internet access and portable digital audio playback devices such as the iPod, podcasting began to catch hold in late 2004. Today there are more than 115,000 English-language podcasts available on the Internet, and dozens of websites available for distribution at little or no cost to the producer or listener. According to one survey in 2017, 42 million Americans above the age of 12 listen to podcasts on at least a weekly basis. (Wikipedia) History Podcasts to Share With Your Friends These educational podcasts are much lighter than a textbook. BY LIZZ SCHUMER | Oct 9, 2019 If you're the kind of person who often starts sentences with "Did you know?" or you just need holiday cocktail party conversation fodder, add a few of these great history podcasts to your listening queue. They're faster and more portable than historical fiction and much more fun than a formal course, but they'll drop just as much knowledge into your ears. It's probably been awhile since most of us took a high school history class, and once you dive into the best history podcasts out there, you will quickly start to realize there were likely some gaps in your education, no matter how closely you paid attention. Some of our favorite podcasts provide fresh perspectives on politics, offer background on current events, or even help teach us more about people and events we thought we knew already. Even podcast fans who don't consider themselves history buffs will enjoy the witty banter on podcasts like The History Chicks, the golden age of film nostalgia on You Must Remember This, and the true crime bent on podcasts like Monster. If there's a podcast genre, there's probably a historical take on it, so we've found a selection to hit every subject. With this list, you'll never find yourself feeling under-informed again. The History Chicks If you ever felt that history class skewed a little male, this podcast will help close the gender gap. Each episode introduces listeners to female characters in history, including fun facts and interesting tidbits, juicy details and minutiae that will make you the smartest gal at your next get-together. And the show notes include links to learn more, if you're really invested. Listen now. Presidential Host Lillian Cunningham delves into the gap between our historical perception of our nation's past presidents and the real, complicated people they actually were. The series was originally launched as a lead-in to the 2016 presidential election, but it's still worth a listen today. Listen now. Atlanta Monster Some true crime podcasts focus more on the salacious stories than the actual events. Not the Monster series, which has one season on the 1979 spate of child killings in Atlanta and one on the infamous Zodiac Killer. This well-researched series hosted by Payne Lindsey and Matt Frederick will give you all of the facts and background to become a virtual expert on the subject at hand. Listen now. Throughline Help contextualize your news diet with this podcast that explains the historical basis for current events. Hosts Ramtin Arablouei and Rund Abdelfatah take listeners through subjects like military activity along the U.S.-Mexican border and sports protests, so you can come away feeling like a more educated news consumer. Listen now. More Perfect Supreme Court decisions shape so many aspects of our lives, from public safety to public restrooms and a whole host of private matters too, but most of us don't know the whole story behind the landmark cases. This podcast takes you inside the proceedings, explaining how they come about and what they mean for your life. Listen now. Slow Burn For history junkies who want to really dig into the issue, try the exhaustively fascinating Slow Burn from Slate. With two seasons focusing on Watergate and the Monica Lewinsky scandal, respectively, it not only investigates what happened during those events in minute detail, but ties them to our current political circumstances. Listen now. Back Story If you've ever wondered about the real whale that inspired Moby Dick or wanted to know the history of UFOs and aliens in this country, you'll want to take a listen to this aptly-named podcast. It also covers weightier topics like the opioid crisis and immigration, which those lighter concepts balance out nicely. Listen now. Fiasco For those of us who can't tear ourselves away from the latest political happenings, Fiasco is an excellent complement to the news. Host Leon Neyfakh takes us through what really happened during the 2000 election, shedding light on the twists and turns most of us probably never even knew about. It's fascinating, and totally binge-able. Listen now. Revisionist History From the author of such deep dives as The Tipping Point comes this podcast with equally in-depth explorations into historical events and issues you may think you understand. Malcolm Gladwell will show you there's a lot we're taught about our past that isn't entirely accurate, and help correct some of those misconceptions. Listen now. Stuff You Missed in History Class Whether you snoozed your way through AP History or just want to learn about obscure facts while doing other things, this podcast will help fill your chore time or commute with a dose of knowledge. It may not help you pass the exam, but it will make you more interesting at parties. Listen now. Source: Best History Podcasts | Wikipedia - History of Podcasting
  12. What's the Word? - STACCATO pronunciation: [stə-KA-doh] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Italian, 1715 Meaning: 1. Consisting of a series of sounds that are each sharply separated from the others. 2. A series of short, sharply separated sounds or words. Example: "It was hard to work with the staccato of the nail gun in the background." "Kim’s heels made a sharp staccato against the tile as she hurried down the hallway." About Staccato This word evolved from Italian, where it translates to “disconnected.” Did You Know? Staccato also exists in the world of music. Staccato notes have spaces between them for silence, which creates the sharply separated sounds the music is known for. Its opposite is legato, notes that are connected and played with no silence or pauses between them.
  13. Fact of the Day - THE 1950s American fashion, 1953 Marylin Monroe (left, Jane Russell (right) Did you know... that The 1950s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1950, and ended on December 31, 1959. Throughout the decade, the world continued its recovery from World War II, aided by the post-World War II economic expansion. The period also saw great population growth with increased birth rates and the emergence of the baby boomer generation. Despite this recovery, the Cold War developed from its modest beginnings in the late 1940s to a heated competition between the Soviet Union and the United States by the early 1960s. The ideological clash between communism and capitalism dominated the decade, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, with conflicts including the Korean War in the early 1950s, the Cuban Revolution, the beginning of the Vietnam War in French Indochina, and the beginning of the Space Race with the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957. Along with increased testing of nuclear weapons (such as RDS-37 and Upshot–Knothole), the tense geopolitical situation created a politically conservative climate. In the United States, a wave of anti-communist sentiment known as the Second Red Scare resulted in Congressional hearings by both houses in Congress. The beginning of decolonization in Africa and Asia also took place in this decade and accelerated in the following decade. (Wikipedia) Things That Happened in the '50s It's a decade where you'll meet multiple princesses, a new Queen, The King, Prince and the future King of Pop. BY BRIE DYAS | Nov 16, 2020 What comes to mind when you think of the 1950s? The baby boom and Cold War are certainly high on that list, but we're here to tell you that the record of noteworthy events goes on from there. From the world stage to our American backyards, here are just a few of the amazing, and in some cases ground-breaking events that had people buzzing throughout this decade. 1950: The Baby Boom Though it started in 1946, the '50s makes records for the number of babies born per year — around 4 million on average. The top names of the decade: James and Mary. 1950: The Price of the American Dream Just in case you were wondering, the median home price was $7,354 this year. The average home size was under 1,000-square-feet. 1950: A New Princess On February 15, Disney's Cinderella premieres and quickly becomes one of the highest-grossing movies of that year. 1950: Future Food Icon Years before she would become a TV hit and change the way we eat, Julia Child enrolls at Le Cordon Bleu cooking school. 1951: In Living Color RCA broadcasts the first color TV episode on June 25. However, the only photos we could find were in black and white! 1951: Our Favorite Redhead On October 15, I Love Lucy debuts. In the first season, the show reaches over 10 million viewers. 1952: Look Up! Just before midnight July 19-20, a UFO is allegedly spotted on radar and by witnesses on the ground in Washington, D.C. 1953: A New Queen June 2 marks the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II. Hundreds of millions tune in on their televisions and radios to follow the day's momentous events. 1955: A Courageous Bus Ride On December 1st, Rosa Parks made the life altering decision to sit in the section reserved for white passengers on her bus ride home. Her refusal to offer the seat to a white man subsequently led to her arrest and the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The famous boycott lasted for 381 days and resulted in the end of segregation on Montgomery's buses. In 1956, the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed the ruling that bus transportation within a state couldn't be segregated. 1955: Kermit Debuts Kermit the Frog makes his earliest debut on "Sam and Friends," Jim Henson's live action/puppet show that aired on WRC-TV in Washington, D.C. Click the link below to read more about what was happening in The 1950s. Source: Good Housekeeping - Facts About the 50s | Wikipedia - 1950s
  14. What's the Word? - FETTLE pronunciation: [fedl] Part of speech: noun Origin: Late Middle English, 1300s Meaning: 1. Condition. 2. Make or repair (something). Example: "Despite being over a decade old, the biplane remained in fine fettle." "Since Mark had experience with repairing manual vehicles, he was put in charge of fettling the old Chevy." About Fettle While the word fettle developed as a verb meaning “to prepare oneself or get ready” in Late Middle English, it originated from the Old English word “fetel” (strip of material) and the Germanic word “fessel” (chain, band). Did You Know? Old vehicles displayed in museums and in classic shows seem to naturally remain in fine fettle, but a lot of care goes into maintaining their condition. Vehicles are often already donated or loaned in relatively pristine conditions, and staff determine whether it should be cleaned or kept in its original state. Workers also follow meticulous instructions from experts to keep cars gleaming.
  15. Fact of the Day - '70s ALBUMS Did you know.... that the ’70s – we have a love/hate relationship with this era. On one hand, it gave us some of the greatest classic tunes of all time. The decade represented an explosion of talent – singer/songwriters were becoming a trend and rock was branching out into several subgenre. But on the downside, it’s often remembered as the time of the disco mania. Let’s not go down that path because it only upsets us. Now, there were so many things going on in the ’70s that sometimes it’s hard to keep track of tiny details – little-known facts which might surprise even the most diehard fans. There was no Google, Twitter or Facebook and so there was no way of knowing seemingly insignificant things unless they’re published by magazines and newspapers or shown on TV. This list includes all those interesting things about ’70s albums which you may not know. If you already do, congratulations. If you don’t, you’re welcome. Bob Dylan Had To Re-Record Some Songs In “Blood On The Tracks” (1975) After The Test Acetate Pressing Bob Dylan’s “breakup album” is one of his finest works as a singer-songwriter. He exceeded everybody’s expectations and while it received mixed reviews when it was released, over time people acknowledged his musical brilliance evident in this record. It was deeply personal from him since it tackled his failing relationship with his then-wife Sarah. Even their child Jakob was well-aware it was about his parents’ marital discord. After listening to the test acetate pressing, Bob Dylan wasn’t at all pleased. Five songs were scrapped and re-recorded. While majority of listeners believe he made the right call, there are still those who prefer the original versions over the replacement tracks. Obviously, that was a good choice since over the years, the album received more and more praises. Patti Smith’s “Easter” (1978) Was Her First Album Since Her Infamous Stage Fall Patti Smith Group’s third studio album “Easter” was commercially successful due in part to the diversity in the sound and musical styles used. It received widespread critical acclaim even if it didn’t make it to the top in the US Billboard and UK Charts. Also, this is the band’s first album after Patti Smith broke her neck during a stage fall in January 1977. It was during the tour for “Road to Ethiopia” in Tampa, Florida when she fell while dancing on stage and plunged 15 feet into the pit. She had to wear a neck brace and undergo physical therapy. The sad part is, “Road to Ethiopia” was a commercial failure. Aside from a broken neck vertebra, the accident also left her with a fractured spine. Still, she took advantage of her time off by writing a poetry book and of course, “Easter” which is one of the highlights of her career. Bassist John Paul Jones Almost Quit Recording “Physical Graffiti” (1975) To Become A Choirmaster Not everyone will agree that “Physical Graffiti” is Led Zeppelin’s finest work but the fact is it’s one of their best-selling albums with more than eight million copies sold. But it wasn’t an easy record to make. Let’s just say there were a few bumps in the road for these boys. For one, Peppy the roadie crashed Bonzo’s new car and of course he was upset. It pushed back the sessions for weeks. But perhaps the most interesting thing that happened was the fact that they had to cancel recording because JPJ almost quit the band so he can be a choirmaster. Aren’t we glad JPJ finally came around? And well, let’s all thank Peter Grant for talking him out of it. The poor guy only wanted to take a break. Some Dudes Stole Guitars And Even Bill Wyman’s Bass From The Rented Villa Where Rolling Stones Recorded “Exile On Main St.” (1972) The Rolling Stones’ double album is often associated with tales of debauchery. Some of them are so wild it’ll make you wonder how they managed to come up with a legendary record. Now we’ll reserve our thoughts whether “Exile on Main St.” deserves to be tagged as their greatest work ever. Instead, how many of you knew there were axe thieves in Keith Richards’ rented villa in Nellcôte, France? There was no shortage of drugs and craziness but we can’t get over the fact that someone managed to steal one of Bill Wyman’s bass guitars. How dare they? From John Lennon and Eric Clapton to groupies and drug dealers – it was probably hard to keep track of people coming in and out of the house and its security obviously wasn’t the top priority. God knows what happened in that villa so guys walking out with a bunch of guitars probably was the least shocking thing to happen. Rumor has it, those were dealers who collected overdue payment. The Repeated, Insane Laughter In “Dark Side Of The Moon” (1973) Was From Naomi Watts’ Father We know Paul and Linda McCartney didn’t make the cut but if you’ve listened to the album more than once, you probably wondered who that guy with the demented “stoned” laughter was. Well it’s Peter Watts – the band’s road manager and also the father of actress Naomi Watts (she starred in the 2001 thriller “Mulholland Drive” and the 2012 film “The Impossible"). Peter Watts also appeared in the rear cover for Pink Floyd’s 1969 album “Ummagumma” where he posed with fellow roadie Alan Styles in an airport runway along with the band’s van and equipment. You can hear the lunatic laughter in “Speak to Me” and “Brain Damage.” He died a few years later in a Knotting Hill flat due to heroin overdose. It Took Three Hours To Shoot The Cover Photo For Bruce Springsteen’s “Born To Run” (1975) It was the commercially successful “Born to Run” album which allowed Bruce Springsteen to break into mainstream – it sold six million copies in the US alone. And of course, the cover artwork is possibly one of the most iconic photos in rock. It shows The Boss holding his Fender Telecaster and leaning against E Street Band saxophonist Clarence “The Big Man” Clemons. It may look like it was perfected in one take but it was actually a three-hour session with photographer Eric Meola who took 900 frames. Meola even published a book which contained the other shots taken during the photo shoot. And this image is so popular many other artists imitated it – even Sesame Street’s Cookie Monster and Bert recreated the same pose for the album “Born to Add.” Click the link below to read more about these '70s Albums. Source: Facts You Might Not Know From These ’70s Albums
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