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  1. What's the Word: NAPERY pronunciation: [NAY-pər-ee] Part of speech: noun Origin: French, 14th century Meaning: 1. Household linen, especially tablecloths and napkins. Example: "Cindy had color-coordinated napery for every holiday." "The napery went into the laundry after the dinner party." About Graminivorous This word comes from Middle English via the Old French “naperie.” The root, “nape,” means “tablecloth.” Did You Know? “Napery,” while traditionally a word for household linens, is also a Sherwin-Williams paint color. It’s a warm tone; it either looks beige or closer to a buttercream yellow, depending on the light. This paint is featured in many home- design articles and Pinterest boards, particularly ones related to coastal designs.
  2. The song above is not my cup of tea. It's good, but it's not for me.
  3. Fact of the Day - KRAKOW Did you know... that Krakow's history dates back to the Stone Age, when a Slav settlement was built on Wawel Hill. The hill is surrounded by the flowing Vistula River, which provided security for the settlers and remains a defining feature of Krakow today. The first documented instance of the settlement being referred to as "Krakow" is from the year 965, and by that time it was a bustling European trade port, according to Magic Krakow. The name comes from King Krakus, the ruler of an early tribe and, according to myth, the founder of Krakow. (Discovering Krakow) Interesting facts about Kraków by Admin | August 2019 Kraków also known as Cracow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. The official name of the city is Royal Capital City of Krakow. The city is situated in the southern part of Poland, on the Vistula River, in a valley at the foot of the Carpathian Mountains. As of August 2019, the population of Kraków is about 800,000 people. The city covers a total area of 327 square kilometers (127 square miles). The average altitude is 219 meters (719 feet) above sea level. The city has grown from a Stone Age settlement to Poland’s second most important city. It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was already being reported as a busy trading center of Central Europe in 965. It was devastated by Tatar invasions during the 13th century but was quickly rebuilt, receiving “Magdeburg rights,” which consisted of a municipal constitution, in 1257. Kraków was the capital of Poland from 1038 to 1596 and the capital of the Grand Duchy of Kraków from 1846 to 1918. With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic in 1918 and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic center. After the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany at the start of World War II, the newly defined Distrikt Krakau (Kraków District) became the capital of Germany’s General Government. After World War II came communism, and another chapter of rebirth. Over the thousand years of Kraków’s existence, all of the great European architectural styles – Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, baroque and art nouveau. Cited as one of Europe’s most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1978. It was among the first World Cultural Heritage Sites declared by UNESCO. Kraków Old Town is one of the most famous old districts in Poland today and was the center of Poland’s political life from 1038 until King Sigismund III Vasa relocated his court to Warsaw in 1596. The main square of the Old Town of Kraków is the principal urban space located at the center of the city. It dates back to the 13th century, and at 3.8 hectares (9.4 acres) is one of the largest medieval town squares in Europe. The Project for Public Spaces (PPS) lists the square as the best public space in Europe due to its lively street life. The Kraków Cloth Hall dates to the Renaissance and is one of the city’s most recognizable icons. It is the central feature of the main square. It was once a major centre of international trade. Traveling merchants met there to discuss business and to barter. During its golden age in the 15th century, the hall was the source of a variety of exotic imports from the east – spices, silk, leather and wax. Saint Mary’s Basilica is a Brick Gothic church adjacent to the main square in Kraków. Built in the 14th century, its foundations date back to the early 13th century and serve as one of the best examples of Polish Gothic architecture. Standing 80 m (262 ft) tall, it is particularly famous for its wooden altarpiece carved by Veit Stoss (Wit Stwosz). The Wawel Castle is a castle residency located in Kraków Old Town. Built at the behest of King Casimir III the Great, it consists of a number of structures situated around the Italian-styled main courtyard. The castle, being one of the largest in Poland, represents nearly all European architectural styles of medieval, renaissance and baroque periods. The Wawel Royal Castle and the Wawel Hill constitute the most historically and culturally significant site in the country. The Wawel complex, with the Cathedral on the left and Castle to the right. The Wawel Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church located on Wawel Hill in Kraków. More than 900 years old, it is the Polish national sanctuary and traditionally has served as coronation site of the Polish monarchs as well as the Cathedral of the Archdiocese of Kraków. The Wieliczka Salt Mine is one of the largest tourist attractions in Poland, registered on the UNESCO list and visited by over a million tourists every year. The mine, built in the 13th century, produced table salt continuously until 2007, as one of the world’s oldest salt mines still in operation. Now a museum, the mine’s attractions include dozens of statues, three chapels and an entire cathedral that has been carved out of the rock salt by the miners. Kraków is a major attraction for both local and international tourists, attracting about 13 million visitors a year. In 1978, Karol Wojtyla, archbishop of Kraków, was elevated to the papacy as Pope John Paul II—the first Slavic pope ever, and the first non-Italian pope in 455 years. In 2000, Kraków was named European Capital of Culture (for a period of one calendar year). In 2013, Kraków was officially approved as a UNESCO City of Literature. The name of Kraków is traditionally derived from princ Krakus, the legendary founder of Kraków and a ruler of the tribe of Lechitians. In Polish, Kraków is an archaic possessive form of Krak and essentially means “Krak’s (town)”. Krakus’s name may derive from “krakula”, a Proto-Slavic word meaning a judge’s staff, or a Proto-Slavic word “krak” meaning an oak, once a sacred tree most often associated with the concept of genealogy. Source: VBT Discovering Krakow | Just Fun Facts About Krakow
  4. What's the Word: GRAMINIVOROUS pronunciation: [ɡra-mə-NIV-ər-əs] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Latin, mid-18th century Meaning: 1. (Of an animal) feeding on grass. Example: "Most of the farm animals were graminivorous." "Meredith’s research studies the effects of a graminivorous diet." About Graminivorous This word comes from the Latin “gramini-,” the combining form of “gramen,” meaning "grass, fodder." It is combined with “-vorous,” a Latin suffix that means “eating or devouring.” Did You Know? There are many animals that have graminivorous habits, even if they don’t exclusively eat grass. For instance, cats and dogs are known to eat grass occasionally. Typically, dogs consume grass when they have upset stomachs. This is a way to rid their intestinal tracts of parasites that can threaten their health.
  5. Fact of the Day - GLADIATORS Did you know.... that a gladiator was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals. Some gladiators were volunteers who risked their lives and their legal and social standing by appearing in the arena. Most were despised as slaves, schooled under harsh conditions, socially marginalized, and segregated even in death. (Wikipedia) Facts about Gladiators in Ancient Rome by Francesca | July 30, 2021 Are you passionate about travel and ancient history? Once you arrive in Rome you will definitely want to see the Colosseum. As you know, is a spectacular amphitheatre that could accommodate up to 50,000 spectators. In this place, many gladiators fought to entertain the population. But also to entertain the “i patrizi” of ancient Rome. I’m sure you have seen the movie “Gladiator” with Russell Crowe and Joaquin Phoenix to learn more. But if you want and need to know more about gladiators read on here. You will find the top 10 facts about Gladiators in Ancient Rome! 1. Origins of the fights According to historians, the fighting originated in the ancient Etruscan period. Instead, according to others, the fights between gladiators started as blood rites. These blood rites were usually staged during the funerals of some wealthy nobles. And were often held on the graves to represent the virtues of the dead. They became real “funeral games” and grew popular in the 1st century BC with Julius Caesar. Caesar made a hundred gladiators fight in memory of his father and his deceased daughter. 2. Slavery According to some historians, gladiators were slaves bought and trained to fight. Most often they were murderers or people who had committed various crimes. But according to other historians, this has not always been the situation. Many people attracted by the money, glory and “spotlight” became real “freelance gladiators”. They devoted themselves to the “gladiatorial cause”. 3. Fights between gladiators and animals According to scholars, many fights also took place with animals. Animals that the Romans considered “exotic and dangerous” such as lions and tigers. But according to other authorities, fights between gladiators and animals were rare. Often the “venatores” during the “bestiarii” were usually reserved only for specialized gladiators. 4. Women It wasn’t just the men who took care of the fighting. Women who were usually enslaved were also sent to fight in the arena. There were no half measures even if they were often frowned upon. There were some that specialized in fighting and became very famous. We have traces about it in Suetonius’s “Lives of the Caesars”. The emperor Domitian had offered nocturnal shows with gladiators. The expected fights were between men and women but also with the dwarves. 5. Celebrities Very often the winning gladiators became famous and known wherever they fought. The population ran to watch their fights. And for a moment they forgot about the lack of food and health problems. According to some mosaics of Pompeii, gladiators were very popular among women. They were usually depicted catching women along the way with a net. According to some scholars, women believed their sweat was aphrodisiac. 6. The fighting emperors Even the emperors and “patricians” fought to ensure the favour of the population. With the aim of becoming famous and followed by everyone, they became gladiators for a day. The most famous fighters were Caligula, Hadrianus and Titus. Emperor Commodus instead killed bears and other dangerous animals. And once they were brutally killed he loved to collect a sum of money as price. Stuff for emperors right? 7. Until their death Movies and TV series have shown us how gladiators were often exploited to death. Oftentimes this was not the case. Because they were an investment for their trainers. The most famous and the strongest allowed them to earn huge sums of money. for this reason they avoided making them fight all the time. Some fights, lasted so long that in the end, they opted for a draw. Many times it all depended on the vote of the population with their thumbs. Usually, their life was not very long but it depended on experience or being famous. 8. Typology of gladiators The gladiators differed according to their role and costume. The most famous and well-known were: Eques: they were usually armed with a helmet with brim and visor, a flat and round shield, a spear and a “spatha”. Mirmillone: equipped with a short sword and a large rectangular shield. Trace: armed with a curved blade sword and a small curved rectangular shield. But also with a crested helmet with a visor with a gryphon head. Secutor: specialized in fighting the retiarius. In order not to offer any point of attachment to the enemy’s net, he wore an oval helmet with very small slits. Reziario: his armour consisted of a throwing net, a trident and a dagger. He did not have a shield, nor was he wearing a helmet. Provocator: equipped with a medium rectangular shield. But also with a metal shield on the chest in the shape of a crescent moon. He was usually equipped with a short, straight blade sword. Essediairus: They often fought with the chariot and horses. But they continued to fight on foot. 9. Organization Gladiators were often divided into categories based on their skills and level. The experience was a must and victories and defeats were usually taken into account. They were always classified according to their armour and their fighting styles. Usually, the “trace” fought with the “mirmillone” or with a “reziario” and so on. The most famous and well-known gladiators were also sent out of Rome. They often fought in the other arenas located along Italy. Such as for example the arena of Pompeii or Naples but also in the areas near Verona. 10. Conquering freedom Very often the gladiators could win their freedom. They were slaves bought by “entrepreneurs” of the time who obviously wanted their money back. To win freedom they had to make their owner earn money, make him rich. They had to free their freedom. Once free they wore the “pileus” a white wool cap. Source: Wikipedia - Gladiator | Facts About Gladiators
  6. What's the Word: DILUVIAL pronunciation: [də-LOO-vee-əl] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Latin, mid 17th century Meaning: 1. Relating to a flood or floods, especially the biblical flood. Example: "The diluvial rain transformed the barren field into a temporary lake." "City planners needed to ensure nothing was built on the diluvial plains." About Diluvial "Diluvial” has its roots in the Latin verb “diluere,” which means “to wash away.” Did You Know? From the mid 17th century, geologists and archeologists used the adjective “diluvial” to refer to a distinct geological turning point associated with the Noah's biblical flood. It only acquired its modern meaning in the 1800s; an early example of modern usage is found in Caroline M. Kirkland’s essay “Forest Life,” from 1850.
  7. Fact of the Day - SCHRODINGER Did you know... that Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger, sometimes written as Erwin Schrodinger or Erwin Schroedinger, was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian-Irish physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in quantum theory: the Schrödinger equation provides a way to calculate the wave function of a system and how it changes dynamically in time. (Wikipedia) Interesting Facts about Erwin Schrodinger by Facts King | Date: Unavailable Schrödinger (front row 2nd from right) Erwin Schrodinger is one of the most influential thinkers and scientists of the 19th and 20th centuries. The important Austrian made huge advancements in quantum physics that have helped change and define the way we look at the world. Schrodinger is so much more than just his cat though, so let’s take a look at 10 interesting facts about Erwin Schrodinger. 1. He has a crater on the moon named after him Erwin Schrodinger has had a lot of memorials and buildings name after him thanks to his undeniable influence on the world, but one thing that is named after him is quite literally out of this world. A crater on the dark side of the moon has been named after the scientist. The crater is officially known as ‘large crater Schrodinger’, an interesting fact about Erwin Schrodinger. 2. Schrodinger’s Cat Schrodinger’s most famous idea is that of ‘Schrodinger’s Cat’. This was a thought experiment that was first thought up in 1935. The idea is a theoretical question and has a cat was locked in a box or small chamber with a bottle of poison, a Geiger counter, radioactive material, and a hammer. The radioactive matter is incredibly small, meaning there is a 50/50 chance of it being detected by the Geiger counter. If it is detected, however, then it will cause the hammer to smash the poison and kill the cat. This thought experiment was designed to undermine the flaws in the Copenhagen Institute’s take on the quantum superposition. The experiment theorizes that until the box is opened, the cat exists in a limbo state of being both alive and dead. The theory is often referenced in popular culture and has become a staple of modern-day philosophical thinking. 3. Erwin Schrodinger was born in 1887 Erwin Schrodinger was born on the 12th of August 1887 in Vienna, Austria. His father, Rudolf Schrodinger, was a botanist, while his mother was Georgine Emilia Brenda Schrödinger, the daughter of a chemistry professor. His mother was half Austrian, half English and was a Lutheran, while his father was a catholic. Despite being raised by two religious parents and attending church at a young age, an interesting fact about Erwin Schrodinger is that he was an atheist. 4. He died in 1961 Erwin Schrodinger had battled ill health for a lot of his life. He spent some time in the 1920s in a sanatorium in Arosa, where he was fighting against tuberculosis. It would be this illness that would catch up with him once again later in life. Erwin Schrodinger died from tuberculosis on January 4th, 1961 in his home city of Vienna, Austria. He was 73 years old. 5. He was awarded the Nobel Prize Erwin Schrodinger received a great many awards during his lifetime. While he received a lot of honorary degrees and other awards for his hard work, the most significant prize that he won came when he won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1933, an interesting Erwin Schrodinger fact. Schrodinger had just left the University of Berlin to go and teach at Oxford University at the time. He shared the prize with another scientist, Paul A.M. Dirac. During his speech for the prize, he stated that the prize would have been going to his mentor, Fritz Hasenöhrl, had he not been tragically killed during the First World War. 6. He Left Germany in the Second World War After being forced to join the Austro-Hungarian forces in the First World War, Schrodinger took a stance against the rise of the Nazi party and their anti-semitic views in the build-up to the Second World War. He and his wife, Annemarie Bertel, left Germany after getting the attention of the Nazi party and fled to Italy. Of course, Italy’s political situation was equally as worrying and Schrodinger and Bertel managed to secure a safe passage to England, where Schrodinger would take up several university positions. 7. He earned a PhD at the age of 23 Erwin Schrodinger showed an aptitude for learning at an incredibly young age. After capturing the attention of his teachers and those around him with his fine academic performances, Schrodinger eventually went on to study his doctorate at the University of Vienna. In 1910, under the supervision of his mentor, Fritz Hasenöhrl, Erwin Schrodinger was awarded his PhD in physics at the remarkably young age of just 23. A sign of the greatness that he would go on to achieve during his life. 8. He had a spiritual side A painting with complex iconography Despite all of his work in the sciences and his declaration at a young age that he was an atheist, there was still a spiritual element to Erwin Schrodinger. Schrodinger had very keen interests in Eastern religions and pantheism, and he would regularly feature religious and spiritual iconography in his work. He was a particular believer in the Hindu Vedanta philosophy. 9. The Schrodinger Equation Erwin Schrodinger’s most influential contribution was The Schrodinger Equation. The Schrodinger Equation is a linear partial differential equation that is used to describe the wave or state function of a quantum-mechanical system, an interesting Erwin Schrodinger fact. Schrodinger made the discovery in 1925 and it would be this would propel him to go on to win a Nobel Prize less than a decade later. This discovery made significant advancements in the area of quantum physics possible. 10. He had an Irish Passport Schrödinger's grandson in Dublin to mark DNA letter going on display for first time Due to his often controversial opinions and his unique lifestyle, Erwin Schrodinger lived a somewhat nomadic life, spending time in several different countries before returning back to Vienna at the end of his life. One country where he was particularly welcomed was Ireland. Schrodinger was invited to live and work in Dublin at the Institute of Advanced Studies by the then Taoiseach (Prime Minister) Éamon de Valer in 1939. Schrodinger then lived in Dublin with his wife and his other partner for well over a decade and in that time he became an Irish citizen and was given an Irish passport. This is often viewed as one of the most productive periods of Schrodinger’s life. Conclusion Erwin Schrodinger’s impact on the modern world is undeniable. His work have helped to change the world we live in and his thought experiments have earned him his place in popular culture today. Source: Wikipedia - Erwin Schrodinger | Facts About Erwin Schrodinger
  8. What's the Word: COMPÈRE pronunciation: [KAHM-per] Part of speech: noun Origin: French, early 20th century Meaning: 1. A person who introduces the performers or contestants in a variety show; host. Example: "Sam’s bubbly personality made him a great compère." "The compère introduced all of the contestants with a nickname." About Compère This comes from the French word for “godfather,” originally from the medieval Latin “compater.” “Com-” means “together with,” and the Latin “pater” means “father.” Did You Know? Loyset Compère was a Franco-Flemish composer during the Renaissance. He likely had nothing to do with the etymology of “compère,” but it’s a happy coincidence that he contributed to musical performance. He was one of the most significant composers of the lyric-driven musical compositions popular during that time, as well as one of the first musicians to bring the Italianate Renaissance style to France.
  9. Fact of the Day - CARIBOU Did you know.... that the reindeer, also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, subarctic, tundra, boreal, and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia, and North America. This includes both sedentary and migratory populations. It is the only representative of the genus Rangifer. Herd size varies greatly in different geographic regions. (Wikipedia) Caribou: Facts You Won’t Believe! By Kidadl Team | Published on Aug 05, 2021 | Updated on Nov 04, 2021 Since time, these animals and their association to Santa's sleigh, have attracted a magical fascination surrounding their existence. You will be surprised to know that both Caribou and Reindeer animals have been classified as a single species Rangifer tarandus. Caribou animals belong to the deer family wherein both the males and females of the species grow antlers. The long legs of Caribou help them move through snow quite easily. While most species of these animals are present in adequate numbers, the woodland Caribou has been identified as endangered. The Caribou are found in the tundra region as well as in northern woodland regions of US and Canada. Are you wondering what type of animal the Caribou is and want to learn more about the species, Rangifer tarandus? In that case, read along to learn some interesting facts about these mystifying groups of deer. What type of animal is a Caribou? Caribou or rangifer tarandus is a variant of deer species. However, the reference associated with this member of the deer family largely depends on their geographical distribution. For instance, Rangifer tarandus in North America are regarded as reindeer when domesticated and Caribou when living in the wilderness. What class of animal does a Caribou belong to? Caribou belong to Class Mammalia; that is, organisms that are characterized by the presence of mammary glands for the nourishment of young ones. Rangifer tarandus share the family name Cervidae with other members such as brockets, pudu, deer, and elk. The Inuit name for these animals is tuktu. Caribou belong to the deer family where both male and female animals grow antlers and are found in the tundra region. How many Caribous are there in the world? As per recent reports, there are over five million Caribous active in the wild. However, they may be subject to a vulnerable stage of extinction if humans continue to hunt them. Caribous prefer living in herds and huge herds of these animals can be found in the Arctic tundra or North American woodland in Canada and US. They are normally found in regions where there is plenty of snow. Where does a Caribou live? Caribou belong to deer family (occurring at a wide range of longitudes, however only at higher latitudes). Herds of subspecies such as Rangifer tarandus caribou can be located as far as 46° North latitudes, while subspecies such as Svalbard reindeer can be found at 80° North latitudes along the northern hemisphere. The Caribou species is an original inhabitant of regions like Scandinavia, Russia, Mongolia, and eastern Europe, Greenland. Their herds are also found in Canada, from Washington to Maine, northern China (north of the 50th latitude) around Arctic tundra. They prefer to live near their food sources such as plants and lichen. What is a Caribou's habitat? These mammals are the inhabitants of arctic, tundra, subarctic, boreal, forest, and mountainous regions. They prefer to live in herds and away from other animals and live amongst themselves. As per recent studies, around 51 herds of Caribou are present in Canada but out of them around 20 herds are facing decline in the overall numbers. Some herds are shared by Canada and Alaska. Even during winters, Caribou prefer less sheltered areas as the wind sweeps away the snow, making it easier for them to reach plants and lichen, which are their primary food source. The cloven hooves also enable the Caribou to walk quite easily in deep snow. During the winters, they use their hooves to dig through the snow and access lichen and other food sources. Who do Caribous live with? Caribou or rangifer tarandus is a social mammal and is observed to socalise, particularly during the summer months. In Canada, they travel in large herds with their numbers as much as tens of thousands. Movement in herds proves to be quite advantageous for Caribou. It is known to provide some solace from pestering warble flies, nose bot flies, and mosquitoes. In contrast to the traveling progression of summer, in cooler weather, the cluster of Rangifer tarandus slump, and are reduced to as little as 10 members per herd. How long does a Caribou live? The average lifespan of the Caribou ranges between 12-15 years in the wild. In contrast to their male counterparts, the female Caribou have a longer lifespan (over 15 years), whereas the expectancy of males ranges between 5-10 years. Their lifespan also depends on how easily and frequently they are able to access their favorite food, which are plants and lichen. How do they reproduce? The breeding season for rangifer tarandus extends from October to November, also known as the fall rut. During this time, the male members of the species compete in fights to lay claims on their female peers. The dominant male, then adopting polygynous breeding procedures, gets access to a small herd of about 5-15 females for mating. Preparing for this annual mating event, the male Caribou are observed brushing away the velvet from their antlers. Following the fusion of male and female gametes, the gestation period in Rangifer tarandus ranges between 228-234 days. The females of the species often move to a common calving ground, abandoning the herds. Following gestation, generally, one offspring per female Caribou is born; there are rare reports of twins being born to a Caribou. What is their conservation status? The Caribou includes quite a number of subspecies categorized under their name. With a total population of about five million, these members of the Cervidae Family are listed as Least concerned by IUCN. However, a number of subspecies are found to be vulnerable such as woodland Caribou. Though, availability of food is a major cause of migration amongst Caribou as they need to feed regularly to maintain themselves in cold weather conditions. Moreover, the hunting of the woodland Caribou by northern indigenous people is another reason behind their reducing numbers. What do Caribous look like? Caribous exhibit a large variation in terms of size, though generally, the subspecies of the southern latitudes are larger than their northern relatives. These animals possess hairy fur, which works primarily in the direction of instilling insulation and therefore is found covering the entire length of their bodies. The coat of Rangifer tarandus is double-layered, with an inner undercoat of dense, soft, and fine wool stationed right next to their epidermis and an outer layer of long, hollow, and tapered hair. They range in color from white, light beige color to tones of dark brown with a tinge of white patches on their breast, belly, areas near hooves and neck. The hooves of the Caribous species are broad, concave, and padded. The antlers are the defining characteristics of these animals. In resemblance to the branches of a tree, the crown of Rangifer tarandus also possesses numerous tines or antler branches arising from the frontal bones of their skull. How cute are they? With their fascinating appearance and majestic antlers, the Rangifer tarandus is a stunning sight to set eyes on. How do they communicate? Want to read more about the Caribou? Click here. Source: Wikipedia - Caribou | Caribou Facts
  10. What's the Word: APODICTIC pronunciation: [ap-ə-DIK-tik] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Latin, mid 17th century Meaning: 1. Clearly established or beyond dispute. Example: "The surgeon had an apodictic knowledge of the human body." "I can claim apodictic abilities once I receive my certification in electrical engineering." About Apodictic This word comes from the Latin “apodicticus,” originally from the Greek “apodeiktikos” and “apodeiktos.” It stems from the verbal adjective of “apodeiknynai,” meaning "to show off, demonstrate, show by argument, point out, prove." Did You Know? Theologians discuss two kinds of law: apodictic and casuistic. Apodictic law is comprised of absolute commands often rendered from a higher power, like the Ten Commandments. Casuistic law (also known as case law) is based on precedents and moral principles are applied to determine right and wrong in specific situations.
  11. Fact of the Day - CUTTHROAT ISLAND (movie) Did you know.... that Cutthroat Island is a 1995 adventure swashbuckler film directed by Renny Harlin and written by Robert King and Marc Norman from a story by Michael Frost Beckner, James Gorman, Bruce A. Evans, and Raynold Gideon. It stars Geena Davis, Matthew Modine, and Frank Langella. The film is an international co-production among companies in the United States, France, Germany, and Italy. (Wikipedia) Cutthroat Island: 10 Behind The Scenes Facts Cutthroat Island was one of the cinemas' biggest bombs, and its downfall makes for one of the greatest cautionary tales in Hollywood history. BY JUSTIN VAN VOORHIS | DECEMBER 06, 2020 From Battlefield Earth to The Bonfire of The Vanities, Hollywood has suffered some horrendous flops, however, 1995's Cutthroat Island bombed so bad that this swashbuckling pirate movie sank an entire movie studio, Carolco Pictures, and ruined the reputations and careers for many involved. The cause of Cutthroat Island's failure is rooted in excess, ego, and hope for success in a genre from a bygone era. The production has become a Hollywood legend, featuring stories of recasting, over-spending, and a disastrous shoot on the water. The production company, Carolco Pictures, needed desperately for the movie to be a hit and they put all they had into it. Ultimately, Cutthroat Island flopped, and what was a dying studio's last hope became the nail in its coffin. Excessive Studio Spending In the late 80s and early 90s, Carolco Pictures was making hit after hit with movies like Terminator 2, Basic Instinct, and Total Recall. Funded by money gained from successful movies like the Rambo sequels, Carolco offered stars more money in order to compete with other major studios. Thus, Carolco became known for excessive spending on private jets, parties, and limos. When Arnold Schwarzenegger signed on to Terminator 2, not only was he paid $14 million, but he was given a $17 million private jet. Essentially, the studio was spending more than they were taking in. The Last Hope With excessive spending and costs rising, Carolco needed a sure-fire hit to bail them out of potential bankruptcy and they felt their best chance was a pirate movie called Cutthroat Island. So, they canceled a Paul Verhoeven-directed movie called Crusade starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, after Verhoeven couldn't guarantee that it wouldn't go over budget. By not doing Crusade, Carolco shifted money to Cutthroat Island, increasing the budget from $60 million to $100 million. Also, overseas distributors paid Carolco a lot of money in distribution rights having been promised that the movie was going to be a huge hit. With overseas money invested, there was no turning back now. Husband And Wife Team Renny Harlin directed Cutthroat Island and it starred his then-wife Geena Davis. Renny Harlin had garnered acclaim from directing action movies like Die Hard 2 and Cliffhanger, and was given free rein on the movie. Geena Davis had won an Oscar and recently starred in hits like A League of Their Own and Thelma & Louise, but was not known for action. However, Harlin convinced the head of Carolco to cast Davis in an attempt to help her branch out into action movies. Michael Douglas Michael Douglas was originally cast as co-lead William Shaw opposite Davis' Morgan Adams, however, despite always wanting to do a movie like Cutthroat Island, he departed due to two reasons. Michael Douglas didn't have adequate time to prepare for Cutthroat Island after finishing his previous movie. He would've had to take fencing lessons and prep for a shoot that required him to be in almost every scene. He also claimed that producers were expanding Geena Davis' role at his expense and Matthew Modine, who was not known for action either but was an experienced fencer, was cast instead. Harlin Begged To Be Fired Renny Harlin claimed to have seen the film being a disaster coming. He knew that Carolco was on the verge of bankruptcy and their distributor, MGM, was in the process of being sold which meant that the Christmas-scheduled movie probably wouldn't get the proper marketing push. Now that Michael Douglas was gone, Harlin and Davis asked to be let go but Carolco denied their requests due to contractual obligations. They both felt having a female as the lead of a pirate movie might not go over well, so they were both scared. Harlin even paid another writer a million dollars of his own money to rewrite the script, which had been originally centered around Michael Douglas' character. Disastrous Shoot While occupied with desperately finding a new male lead, Harlin couldn't give input on the sets, thus requiring them to be rebuilt at great cost. Some of the production's other issues were an injured cinematographer who was then replaced, over two dozen crew members quitting after Harlin fired the chief camera operator, the cast and crew falling ill, and million-dollar wooden pirate-ship sets catching fire. Also, pipes broke allowing raw sewage to flow into water tanks the actors were using to film some sequences. Harlin also requested the actors to do their own stunts which resulted in his own wife coming away with bruises and injuries. Want to know more about Behind the Scenes of Cutthroat Island, then click here. Source: Wikipedia - Cutthroat Island | Facts About Behind the Scenes of Cutthroat Island
  12. What's the Word: TUTELARY pronunciation: [TYOO-dl-er-ee] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Latin, early 17th century Meaning: 1. Serving as a protector, guardian, or patron; relating to protection or a guardian. Example: "The state police provided tutelary services to the former governor." "Adam’s aunt was a tutelary presence in his childhood." About Tutelary This word comes from the Late Latin “tutelarius,” meaning "a guardian," originally from the Latin “tutela,” meaning "protection, watching." Did You Know? History is filled with tutelary deities who were deemed guardians of everything from a specific location or person to specific occupations. Ancient Greek and Roman religions believed in personal, tutelary gods for individuals from birth to death.
  13. Fact of the Day - LOGOS Did you know... that a logo is a graphic mark, emblem, or symbol used to aid and promote public identification and recognition. It may be of an abstract or figurative design or include the text of the name it represents as in a wordmark. In the days of hot metal typesetting, a logotype was one word cast as a single piece of type (e.g. "The" in ATF Garamond), as opposed to a ligature, which is two or more letters joined, but not forming a word. By extension, the term was also used for a uniquely set and arranged typeface or colophon. At the level of mass communication and in common usage, a company's logo is today often synonymous with its trademark or brand. (Wikipedia) FASCINATING FACTS BEHIND WORLD-FAMOUS LOGOS by UNBELIEVABLE FACTS | Year 2018 A logo is something that defines a brand. It defines what a company stands for and how consumers can associate themselves with the brand. Companies spend millions of dollars in the design of their logos so that they can have unique logos to stand out from their competitors. We see hundreds of logos every day, but there are a few that just stick in our minds. Maybe it’s the colors of the logo or a hidden element that adds to the aesthetics. We bring to you ten such fascinating facts behind world-famous logos. 1. The FedEx logo has an intentionally hidden white arrow between the letters “E” and “x” that was created by blending two different fonts together. It has won over 40 design awards and is renowned for the best use of negative space. The FedEx logo is one of the most recognized logos in the world. But the bold lettering and bright colors of the logo are not what makes the logo great. It’s the hidden arrow between the letters “E” and “x” that adds a certain charisma to the logo and is the perfect use of negative space. The design is both simple and clear. Lindon Leader designed the FedEx logo in 1994. This logo is a legend when it comes to designers. It has won around 40 design awards and had been termed as one of the best logos, out of the top eight, to be designed in the past 35 years. When Lindon started working on the logo for FedEx, the CEO Fred Smith said two things, “You can make them pink and green for all I care; just give me a good reason why. My trucks are moving billboards. I better be able to see a FedEx truck loud and clear from five blocks away.” Lindon started working keeping these two things in mind. While he was tweaking with the letters, he saw a small arrow appear between the letter E and x. He had to mix the best qualities of two different fonts, Univers and Futura Bold, to make the arrow look natural and unforced. When few final designs were showcased to FedEx, the CEO was the first to notice the hidden arrow in Lindon’s design and everyone loved it! 2. VLC Media Player uses a traffic cone as its logo because the students who wrote the code for the VideoLAN project had a traffic cone collection. We have all wondered at some point in our lives what the traffic cone in VLC Media Player stands for. Well, today you can put all your speculations to rest! The creator of VLC Media Player is the ViaRézo Association of the École Centrale’s Networking Students’ Association. Once, some students from the association came back drunk with a traffic cone. They then started a cone collection. When the VideoLAN project began to develop the VLC Media Player, they decided to use the cone as their logo. 3. The logo for Domino’s Pizza has three dots because there were only three original Domino’s stores in 1965. They planned to add a new dot for every new store, but the idea was dropped due to the fast growth of the franchise. Domino’s was originally DomiNick’s, a small pizza store that was purchased by Tom Monaghan and his brother James. The brothers decided to split their time to run the business. But James was not willing to let go of his full-time job as a postman to run the pizza business. He quit and sold his half of the business to Tom. By 1965, Tom purchased two additional pizza stores and expanded his business. He wanted all the three stores to share the same brand name. When the original owner of DomiNick’s forbade him from using that original name, Tom renamed the stores Domino’s after a suggestion from one of his employees. Since the business was comprised of only three stores at that time, Tom decided to add three dots to the logo. He also planned to include one dot for every new store that he added to the brand. But the business expanded so fast that Tom had to drop the idea. If they had continued the idea, the logo would have had more than 13,000 dots by now! 4. The Walt Disney logo is not based on Walt’s own signature. It is, in fact, based on an employee’s version of it who used to sign fan mail on Walt’s behalf. The stylized version got so famous that Walt Disney had problem signing his own autographs! The Walt Disney logo is recognized by people all across the world and across all age groups. The original logo had just the words “Walt Disney Presents.” The image of the castle was added much later. But that is not the intriguing part. Most of us believe that it’s Walt Disney’s signature that appears on the logo. But that is not the case. It is, in fact, a stylized version of Walt’s actual signature created by a group of artists. When the company started to grow, Walt didn’t have much time to sign every piece of fan mail that he received. His secretary and some other employees were the ones who would take care of fan mails and sign them on Walt’s behalf. This led to a situation in the 1940s where there existed more fake versions of Walt’s signature than actual and original ones. The stylized version became so popular that it gave Walt Disney a hard time while signing autographs. Over the years, Walt tried to change his signature to match the stylized version, but you can still see the difference. 5. The logo for Bluetooth, which was named after the Danish King Harald Bluetooth, is derived from the Danish letters that represent the king’s initials – H (ᚼ) and B (ᛒ). Ericsson named their revolutionary technology “Bluetooth” after Harald Bluetooth who ruled Denmark as their king between 958 and 986 CE. During his rule, he introduced Christianity to Denmark and Norway and contributed to the unification of various Danish tribes under one kingdom. This analogy was used while naming the wireless technology Bluetooth because, just like the king united people, the technology enabled the unification of various devices and made communication between them easier. The logo is designed by using a bind rune. A bind rune is basically a combination of runes or letters that were used to write Germanic languages before Latin letters were adopted. In the logo, the two Younger Futhark runes, or more commonly called Scandinavian runes, that represent the king’s initials are merged – ᚼ (Hagall) and ᛒ (Bjarkan). Read about the next 5 logos here. Source: Wikipedia - Logo | Facts About Behind World Famous Logos
  14. What's the Word: REIFY pronunciation: [REE-ə-fi] Part of speech: verb Origin: Latin, mid 19th century Meaning: 1. Make (something abstract) more concrete or real. Example: "The still-life assignment was to reify the sketch as a complete oil painting" "The ad agency was asked to reify the marketing pitch ahead of their next meeting with the clients." About Reify "Reify" is a construction of the Latin “res,” meaning “thing,” and an evolution of the Latin verb “facere,” meaning “do, or make.” Did You Know? "Reify'' is an obscure verb that attempts to use language to bridge the gap between things that don’t exist yet, and what they will become. There aren’t many synonyms, but some that are slightly more common in usage are: “conceptualize,” “concretize,” “objectify,” and “picture.”
  15. Fact of the Day - GARGOYLES Did you know.... that in architecture, and specifically in Gothic architecture, a gargoyle is a carved or formed grotesque with a spout designed to convey water from a roof and away from the side of a building, thereby preventing rainwater from running down masonry walls and eroding the mortar between. Architects often used multiple gargoyles on a building to divide the flow of rainwater off the roof to minimize the potential damage from a rainstorm. A trough is cut in the back of the gargoyle and rainwater typically exits through the open mouth. Gargoyles are usually an elongated fantastical animal because the length of the gargoyle determines how far water is directed from the wall. When Gothic flying buttresses were used, aqueducts were sometimes cut into the buttress to divert water over the aisle walls. (Wikipedia) Fearsome Facts about Gargoyles BY JEFF WELLS | OCTOBER 31, 2016 They conjure images of hideous, brooding creatures perched high above the cities and villages of the world. The most terrifying ones look as though they might break from their stone moorings and take flight. But gargoyles, it turns out, are full of surprises. Read on to learn the origin of their name, their very functional purpose, and what makes a gargoyle different from a grotesque. 1. THEY SERVE A PRACTICAL PURPOSE. When gargoyles began appearing on churches throughout Europe in the 13th century, they served as decorative water spouts, engineered to preserve stone walls by diverting the flow of rainwater outward from rooftops. This function, technically speaking, distinguishes gargoyles from other stone beasts like grotesques and bosses, although these days the term encompasses all sorts of decorative creature carvings. 2. THE NAME COMES FROM A DRAGON-SLAYING LEGEND. The word gargoyle derives from the French gargouille, meaning "throat." This would appear to take its inspiration from the statues' water-siphoning gullets, but in fact the name comes from the French legend of "La Gargouille," a fearsome dragon that terrorized the inhabitants of the town of Rouen. For centuries, according to the story, the dragon swallowed up ships and flooded the town, until around 600 BCE, when a priest named Romanus came along and agreed to vanquish the beast in exchange for the townspeople's conversion to Christianity. Romanus tamed the dragon by making the sign of the cross, then led it into town where it was burned at the stake. The creature’s head, however, wouldn’t burn, so the townspeople cut it off and affixed it to their church. The gargouille’s head became a ward against evil and a warning to other dragons. 3. THEY WERE MEANT TO INSPIRE FEAR IN PARISHIONERS. Because most Medieval Europeans were illiterate, the clergy needed visual representations of the horrors of hell to drive people to the sanctuary of the church. Placing gargoyles on the building’s exterior reinforced the idea that evil dwelt outside the church, while salvation dwelt within. "How better to enforce church attendance and docility than by providing a daily reminder of the horrors to come," wrote Gary Varner in his book, Gargoyles, Grotesques and Green Men: Ancient Symbolism in European and American Architecture. 4. THEY ALSO BROUGHT PAGANS TO CHURCH. Churches would also model gargoyles after the creatures worshipped by pagan tribes, thinking this would make their houses of worship appear more welcoming to them. It was a bit of clever marketing that worked, according to scholar Darlene Trew Crist. "Churches grew in number and influence as the pagan belief system and many of its images were absorbed into Christianity," she wrote in American Gargoyles: Spirits in Stone. 5. THEY DATE BACK TO ANCIENT EGYPT. Although the name gargoyle dates back just a few centuries, the practice of crafting decorative, animal-themed drain spouts reaches back several millennia. The ancient Egyptians had a thing for lions, as did the Romans and the Greeks. The oldest gargoyle-like creation is a 13,000-year-old stone crocodile discovered in Turkey. 6. NOTRE DAME'S GARGOYLES ARE FAIRLY RECENT CREATIONS. The world’s most famous gargoyles, and the ones that most influenced the popular wings-and-horns image of the creatures, are found on Paris’s Notre Dame Cathedral. Although the cathedral was constructed in the 13th century, the gargoyles were part of an extensive restoration project in the mid 1800s. Conceived by architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc and sculptor Victor Pyanet, the gargoyles have little in common with Medieval gargoyles, scholars contend, and were intended to represent the time period rather than recreate it. 7. PITTSBURGH IS A HOTBED FOR GARGOYLES. In the 19th century, the Steel City embraced the Gothic architecture revival that swept across America. Many of its Gothic churches, government buildings, and other edifices remain, along with their iconic gargoyles. All told, Pittsburgh features more than 20 authentic gargoyles, and hundreds of grotesques. Many of them are featured in the city's "Downtown Dragons" tour run by the History and Landmarks Foundation. 8. SOME WERE FASHIONED AFTER BUILDERS AND CHURCH ELDERS. Cologne Cathedral in Germany features a gargoyle fashioned after the church’s longest-serving council member, while at the Cathedral Saint Jean in Lyon, France you can see a gargoyle modeled after the building’s renovation construction manager, Ahmed Benzizine. Because nothing says "thank you" like a hideous stone creature carved in your likeness. 9. A FRENCH CATHEDRAL SWAPPED ITS GARGOYLES FOR "GREMLINS." During the restoration of Chapel of Bethlehem back in the early '90s, sculptor Jean-Louis Boistel decided to replace the building’s crumbling gargoyles with a few pop-culture icons. This included Gizmo and a gremlin from the movie Gremlins, an Alien xenomorph, and a robot from the popular anime UFO Robot Grendizer. Many locals were put off by Boistel’s creations, which are technically grotesques, but enough young movie fans got behind the "geek chapel" idea to get it approved. 10. THERE'S A DARTH VADER GARGOYLE IN WASHINGTON D.C. Back in the '80s, the Washington National Cathedral held a contest for kids to design its newest gargoyle. Coming on the heels of the Star Wars trilogy, of course someone proposed a Darth Vader gargoyle. The cathedral, which had already installed some off-the-wall gargoyles and grotesques during its extensive restoration work, named 13-year-old Christopher Rader's design as one of its winners, and in 1986 put Lord Vader high up on the cathedral’s "dark side" north wall. It can be difficult to spot, but the cathedral offers this handy guide. Source: Wikipedia - Gargoyle | Fearsome Facts About Gargoyles
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