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  1. 2 points
    If you’ve ever wondered what it actually costs when one of these big video game services are giving away “free” games, well, the bill for the Epic Games Store was $11.6 million for the first 10 months of its existence. The information came to light on Monday as part of Epic Games’ lawsuit vs. Apple Computer. Writer and video game historian Simon Carless said a spreadsheet showing 38 titles, given away between December 2018 and September 2019, was “accidentally published early” as part of a trove of lawsuit documents and exhibits. The giveaways released during that period reveal interesting data points about how much Epic Games paid for the privilege to hand out free games in an effort to lure in new users. The first game released as part of that promotional push, Subnautica, proved to be one of the store’s most popular, with 4.6 million entitlements, netting Epic more than 800,000 new accounts. Subnautica was also one of the most expensive buyouts for Epic at $1.4 million. That worked out to a cost of $1.74 per new Epic account, which would appear to be a solid return on Epic’s investment here. Other games, like Super Meat Boy, Rime, For Honor, World of Goo, and the Jackbox Party Pack, earned Epic new users for about 50 cents each — in part because Epic paid far less (between $45,000 and $63,000) for those older titles than it paid for games like Subnautica, Mutant Year Zero ($1 million), or the Batman Arkham series ($1.5 million). Metro: 2033 Redux is listed as costing Epic zero dollars to buyout, but that apparent anomaly seems to be a result of Metro Exodus’ Epic Games Store one-year exclusivity in 2019. More interesting than the amount of money Epic threw around for these freebies, though, is the "UA Cost" column (aka user acquisition), which is the buyout price divided by the number of new Epic Store accounts that each game attracted. That metric, indie developer Rami Ismail said on Twitter, demonstrates that indie games are a very big part of attracting audiences: Big releases like the Arkham games draw huge raw numbers, but games like Oxenfree, Hyper Light Drifter, Super Meat Boy, and Fez add up—and at a fraction of the cost, too. In spite of all that expense and the number of users who have created accounts in exchange for free games, the actual impact of the regular givaways seems relatively minimal. The document indicates that only about 7% of EGS users who have acquired at least one free game have also made a purchase through the storefront, which does not strike me as a very impressive conversion rate. The numbers only go to mid-2019, which mean the doc doesn't tell us how much Epic spent for some of 2020's high profile giveaways, like Grand Theft Auto 5, and whether Epic's UA costs started to climb noticeably over time. If the chief goal is to attract new users, diminishing returns means it's going to become increasingly difficult to do so—and, you'd have to think, too costly to continue doing so at some point. Regardless of how it decides to proceed with weekly giveaways in future years, there's still a long way to go before the Epic Games Store stops burning money: CEO Tim Sweeney acknowledged in April that the Epic Store isn't currently profitable because "it has front-loaded its marketing and user acquisition costs to gain market share." He doesn't expect it to start making money until 2027.
  2. 2 points
    https://www.epicgames.com/store/en-US/p/core Core Early Access is currently free on Epic Games Store. https://store.steampowered.com/app/1597920/KARDS__Anniversary_Edition/ https://store.steampowered.com/app/544810/KARDS__The_WWII_Card_Game/ KARDS: Anniversary Edition DLC is currently free on Steam. The base game, KARDS: The WWII Card Game, is free to play on Steam. https://freebies.indiegala.com/exit-limbo-opening Exit Limbo: Opening is currently free on IndieGala.
  3. 2 points
    https://www.epicgames.com/store/en-US/p/deponia-the-complete-journey Deponia: The Complete Journey is currently free on Epic Games Store. https://www.epicgames.com/store/en-US/p/ken-follets-the-pillars-of-the-earth Ken Follett's The Pillars of the Earth is currently free on Epic Games Store. https://www.epicgames.com/store/en-US/p/the-first-tree The First Tree is currently free on Epic Games Store. https://freebies.indiegala.com/blood-harvest-3 Blood Harvest 3 is currently free on IndieGala. https://freebies.indiegala.com/zombies-on-a-plane-deluxe Zombies on a Plane Deluxe is currently free on IndieGala.
  4. 2 points
    Managed to snag an MSI RTX 3060 Ventus 2X today at my nearest Microcenter after standing in line for an hour.
  5. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - COUNTRIES Did you know.... that a country is a distinct territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign state or part of a larger state, as a non-sovereign or formerly sovereign political division, a physical territory with a government, or a geographic region associated with sets of previously independent or differently associated people with distinct political characteristics. It is not inherently sovereign. (Wikipedia) Fascinating Facts About Every Single Country on Earth By Max DeNike | updated on June 5, 2020 We know travel plans are impacted right now. But to fulfill your wanderlust, we'll continue to share stories that can inspire your next adventure. Have you ever wondered how many countries exist in the world? Do you know how many have “Guinea” in their name? Which one is the youngest? The answers might surprise you. The United Nations recognizes 193 countries plus two observer states, Palestine and the Vatican (Holy See). Besides big players like the United States, Indonesia, Pakistan, China, Mexico and Brazil, most of these countries have fewer than 50 million residents and might be difficult for people to find on a map. So, to make the world a bit more accessible and fun, we set out to find one no-way-it's-true, fascinating fact about all 195 of these countries/observer states, ranked by population. Armed with this information, you’ll be a big hit at the next office party, if maybe not so much on a first date. 1. China Population: 1.43 billion There are 63 million pairs of chopsticks — or 126 million single sticks — manufactured in China every year. These range from mass-produced disposable chopsticks to high-quality sticks that can take up to (yes) a month to painstakingly make. 2. India Population: 1.37 billion India gave the world its sweet tooth. Although sugarcane originated in Southeast Asia, it was first chemically refined about 2,500 years ago in India. (Thanks, India!) 3. United States Population: 329.1 million The stars and stripes make up one of the most recognizable flags of any country in the world. But did you know the modern iteration containing 50 stars was designed for a class project by an enterprising high school student in 1958, who anticipated the addition of Alaska and Hawaii a year later? Amazingly, the boy's unimpressed teacher gave him a B-. 4. Indonesia Population: 270.6 million This Southeast Asian country is the world’s largest island nation, but no one knows exactly how many islands it contains (thousands and thousands, to be imprecise). Indonesia attempted to count them all in 2017, but several differing figures still exist. 5. Pakistan Population: 216.6 million There’s a small city called Sialkot in this South Asian country that produces 40 percent of the world’s soccer balls. 6. Brazil Population: 211 million There are more uncontacted people in Brazil’s portion of the Amazon than anywhere else on the planet, with the number of isolated tribes believed to be more than 100. 7. Nigeria Population: 201 million The Yoruba people in the southwest part of this African nation are known for giving birth to more twins than anywhere else in the world, at a rate of 50 per 1,000 births. The best explanation so far is that Yoruba people eat a type of yam that contains an ovarian stimulate that might release more eggs. 8. Bangladesh Population: 163 million This South Asian country is very warm — so warm, in fact, that the lowest temperature ever recorded was 2.6 degrees Celsius (37.7 degrees Fahrenheit), which is just above freezing. Still, the 2018 cold spell was blamed for 12 deaths. 9. Russia Population: 145.9 million In 2012, Russian scientists were able to regenerate a plant from a seed found in Siberian permafrost that was more than 30,000 years old. 10. Mexico Population: 127.6 million This North American country is home to many pyramids built by the Mayans and other ancient civilizations, but perhaps its least famous triangular structure is actually the largest one in the world. The Aztecs are believed to have built the Great Pyramid of Cholula some 2,000 years ago, and its base is four times larger than Egypt's Great Pyramid of Giza. Today, however, Cholula is mostly covered by dirt and plants. Click the link below to read more fascinating facts about every single country on earth. Source: Facts About Countries | Wikipedia - Country
  6. 1 point
    What's the Word? - EGRESS pronunciation: [EE-gres] Part of speech: noun Origin: Latin, mid 16th century Meaning: 1. The action of going out of or leaving a place. 2. A way out. Example: "The door was propped open for easy egress." "Before the lights dimmed, the ushers pointed out points of egress to moviegoers." About Egress Egress developed from the Latin words “egressus” (gone out) and “egredi,” which came from the combination of “ex” (out) + “gradi” (to step). Did You Know? Architects carefully construct egress windows into bedrooms and basements in order to keep buildings up to code. These windows are specifically designed for an easy exit in the case of an emergency, such as a fire or floods, and professionals often include a ladder for an even hastier exit.
  7. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - THE INCREDIBLE HULK Did you know.... that The Incredible Hulk is an American television series based on the Marvel Comics character The Hulk. The series aired on the CBS television network and starred Bill Bixby as Dr. David Bruce Banner, Lou Ferrigno as the Hulk, and Jack Colvin as Jack McGee. In the TV series, Dr. David Banner, a widowed physician and scientist, who is presumed dead, travels across America under assumed names, and finds himself in positions where he helps others in need despite his terrible secret: In times of extreme anger or stress, he transforms into a huge, savage, incredibly strong green creature, who has been named "The Hulk". In his travels, Banner earns money by working temporary jobs while searching for a way to either control or cure his condition. All the while, he is obsessively pursued by a tabloid newspaper reporter, Jack McGee, who is convinced that the Hulk is a deadly menace whose exposure would enhance his career. The series' two-hour pilot movie, which established the Hulk's origins, aired on November 4, 1977. The series' 80 episodes were originally broadcast by CBS over five seasons from 1978 to 1982. It was developed and produced by Kenneth Johnson, who also wrote or directed some episodes. The series ends with David Banner continuing to search for a cure. In 1988, the filming rights were purchased from MCA/Universal by New World Television for a series of TV movies to conclude the series' storyline. The broadcast rights were, in turn, transferred to rival NBC. New World (which at one point owned Marvel) produced three television films: The Incredible Hulk Returns (directed by Nicholas J. Corea), The Trial of the Incredible Hulk, and The Death of the Incredible Hulk (both directed by Bill Bixby). Since its debut, The Incredible Hulk series has garnered a worldwide fan base. (Wikipedia) Smashing Facts About The Incredible Hulk by Steven Y. | Factinate Created in 1962 by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, the Hulk has had along and tumultuous journey to becoming the iconic character he is today. In his comic book appearances, the Hulk is typically a massive, green-skinned humanoid with vast strength and healing capabilities, while his alter-ego, Bruce Banner, is a physically weak and socially withdrawn physicist. The storylines often play on the conflict between the two. In addition to comic books and graphic novels, the Hulk has appeared in television and film, both live-action and animated, as well as in his own videogames. Here are a few other things you might not have known about the Green Goliath. It Ain’t Easy Being Green Despite being one of the original Marvel characters, created around the same time as Spider-Man and Iron Man, the Hulk has always been on the verge of cancellation. In fact, his solo title was canned after just six issues in 1963. Hulk Bored In the Ultimate Universe, Bruce Banner triggers a Hulk transformation because The Ultimate's had nobody else to fight. Mad Jealous In that same storyline, Bruce happened to be insanely jealous that his ex-girlfriend Betty Ross was out on a date with Freddie Prinze Jr. The deranged Hulk tries to track down Freddie to eat him and the team has to stop his rampage. It’s just as well. Freddie Prinze Jr. does not look tasty. Involuntary Astronaut Thinking that it was the best way to contain him, the Illuminati, pretending to be Hulk’s friends, sent him into outer space to take out a satellite. This was a huge betrayal that will likely not result in the warmest and fuzziest feelings between everyone. A Dish Best Served Green After he was sent to space, he landed on the planet Sakaar which Hulk immediately conquered. Hulk then raised an army and returned to Earth to get revenge on The Illuminati for sending him away in the first place. B-B-But When the Hulk got his own TV series in 1978, they changed Bruce Banner’s first name to David because, as the show producer claimed, it was unrealistic to have a character with an alliterative name, conveniently forgetting the fact that Bruce Banner was played by Bill Bixby. Multiple Personalities Because “Hulk smash” got old fast, the Hulk has had a few iterations over the years including Joe Fixit, a Vegas mob enforcer, a smart version of the Hulk called “The Professor”, and a crazy Hulk who had to stay angry to stop reverting to a deranged Banner. Once a Hulk… Lou Ferrigno, the bodybuilder who played the Hulk, has actually been involved with every live-action Hulk adaptation ever including a cameo appearance in Ang Lee’s Hulk, The Incredible Hulk, and as the voice of the Hulk in “Avengers: Age of Ultron.” Fear Itself Although he was one of the founding members of The Avengers, Hulk actually left the group shortly after their first battle (against Loki) because he realized that his teammates were afraid of him. He stayed away for fifty years before finally returning. Hulk Sad In the storyline of “Hulk: The End,” everyone on Earth is killed by nuclear war leaving Bruce Banner to wander the wasteland by himself as an immortal kept alive against his will by the Hulk. Eventually, the Banner part of his psyche dies, leaving the Hulk alone forever which is depressing AF. Click the link below to read more facts about The Incredible Hulk Source: The Incredible Hulk Facts | Wikipedia - The Incredible Hulk
  8. 1 point
    What's the Word? - STALWART pronunciation: [STOL-wərt] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Late Middle English, mid 1300s Meaning: 1. Loyal, reliable, and hardworking. 2. (dated) Strongly built and sturdy. Example: "John remained a stalwart supporter of the Chicago Cubs no matter the outcome of the game." "The old house was still as stalwart as it was in 1902." About Stalwart Stalwart originated in Late Middle English as a Scots variant of the obsolete word “stalworth,” a combination of the Old English words “stǣl” (place) and “weorth” (worth). Did You Know? Many television and radio stations rely heavily on stalwart supporters in order to survive. PBS has been made famous by its slogan that says production is possible by “viewers like you.” The statement is formulated to emphasize the importance of viewer support.
  9. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - FAMOUS FIRSTS (WOMEN) Famous Firsts in Women’s History HISTORY.COM EDITORS ORIGINAL:JAN 4, 2010 | UPDATED:FEB 4, 2021 American women’s history has been full of pioneers: Women who fought for their rights, worked hard to be treated equally and made great strides in fields like science, politics, sports, literature and art. These are just a few of the remarkable accomplishments by trail-blazing women in American history. 1. First women’s-rights convention meets in Seneca Falls, New York, 1848 In July 1848, some 240 men and women gathered in upstate New York for a meeting convened, said organizers, “to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of women.” One hundred of the delegates–68 women and 32 men–signed a Declaration of Sentiments, modeled on the Declaration of Independence, declaring that women, like men, were citizens with an “inalienable right to the elective franchise.” The Seneca Falls Convention marked the beginning of the campaign for women’s suffrage. 2. Wyoming Territory is first to grant women the vote, 1869 In 1869, Wyoming’s territorial legislature declared that “every woman of the age of twenty-one years, residing in this territory, may at every election…cast her vote.” Though Congress lobbied hard against it, Wyoming’s women kept their right to vote when the territory became a state in 1890. In 1924, the state’s voters elected the nation’s first female governor, Nellie Taylor Ross. 3. Californian Julia Morgan is first woman admitted to the Ecole de Beaux-Arts in Paris, 1898 The 26-year-old Morgan had already earned a degree in civil engineering from Berkeley, where she was one of just 100 female students in the entire university (and the only female engineer). After she received her certification in architecture from the Ecole de Beaux-Arts, the best architecture school in the world, Morgan returned to California. There, she became the first woman licensed to practice architecture in the state and an influential champion of the Arts and Crafts movement. Though she is most famous for building the “Hearst Castle,” a massive compound for the publisher William Randolph Hearst in San Simeon, California, Morgan designed more than 700 buildings in her long career. She died in 1957. 4. Margaret Sanger opens first birth control clinic in the United States, 1916 In October 1916, the nurse and women’s rights activist Margaret Sanger opened the first American birth control clinic in Brownsville, Brooklyn. Since state “Comstock Laws” banned contraceptives and the dissemination of information about them, Sanger’s clinic was illegal; as a result, on October 26, the city vice squad raided the clinic, arresting its staff and seizing its stock of diaphragms and condoms. Sanger tried to reopen the clinic twice more, but police forced her landlord to evict her the next month, closing it for good. In 1921, Sanger formed the American Birth Control League, the organization that eventually became Planned Parenthood. 5. Edith Wharton is the first woman to win a Pulitzer Prize, 1921 Wharton won the prize for her 1920 novel The Age of Innocence. Like many of Wharton’s books, The Age of Innocence was a critique of the insularity and hypocrisy of the upper class in turn-of-the-century New York. The book has inspired several stage and screen adaptations, and the writer Cecily von Ziegesar has said that it was the model for her popular Gossip Girl series of books. 6. Activist Alice Paul proposes the Equal Rights Amendment for the first time, 1923 Alice Paul toasting (with grape juice) passage of the Nineteenth Amendment. August 26, 1920. For almost 50 years, women’s-rights advocates like Alice Paul tried to get Congress to approve the Equal Rights Amendment; finally, in 1972, they succeeded. In March of that year, Congress sent the proposed amendment–“Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex”–to the states for ratification. Twenty-two of the required 38 states ratified it right away, but then conservative activists mobilized against it. (The ERA’s straightforward language hid all kinds of sinister threats, they claimed: It would force wives to support their husbands, send women into combat and validate gay marriages.) This anti-ratification campaign was a success: In 1977, Indiana became the 35th and last state to ratify the ERA. In June 1982, the ratification deadline expired. The amendment has never been passed. 7. Amelia Earhart is the first woman to cross the Atlantic in an airplane, 1928 After that first trip across the ocean, which took more than 20 hours, Amelia Earhart became a celebrity: She won countless awards, got a ticker-tape parade down Broadway, wrote a best-selling book about her famous flight and became an editor at Cosmopolitan magazine. In 1937, Earhart attempted to be the first female pilot to fly around the world, and the first pilot of any gender to circumnavigate the globe at its widest point, the Equator. Along with her navigator Fred Noonan, Earhart successfully hopscotched from Miami to Brazil, Africa, India and Australia. Six weeks after they began their journey, Earhart and Noonan left New Guinea for the U.S. territory of Howland Island, but they never arrived. No trace of Earhart, Noonan or their plane was ever found. 8. Frances Perkins becomes the first female member of a Presidential cabinet, 1933 Frances Perkins, a sociologist and Progressive reformer in New York, served as Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Secretary of Labor. She kept her job until 1945. 9. The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League becomes the first professional baseball league for female players, 1943 Rockford Peaches Women had been playing professional baseball for decades: Starting in the 1890s, gender-integrated “Bloomer Girls” teams (named after the feminist Amelia Bloomer) traveled around the country, challenging men’s teams to games–and frequently winning. As the men’s minor leagues expanded, however, playing opportunities for Bloomer Girls decreased, and the last of the teams called it quits in 1934. But by 1943, so many major-league stars had joined the armed services and gone off to war that stadium owners and baseball executives worried that the game would never recover. The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League was the solution to this problem: It would keep ballparks filled and fans entertained until the war was over. For 12 seasons, more than 600 women played for the league’s teams, including the Racine Belles (Wisconsin) , the Rockford Peaches (Illinois) , the Grand Rapids Chicks (Michigan) and the Fort Wayne Daisies (Indiana) . The AAGPBL disbanded in 1954. 10. The FDA announces its approval of “The Pill,” the first birth-control drug, 1960 In October 1959, the pharmaceutical company G.D. Searle applied for a license from the federal Food and Drug Administration to sell its drug Enovid, a combination of the hormones estrogen and progesterone, for use as an oral contraceptive. FDA approval was not guaranteed: For one thing, the agency was uncomfortable with the idea of allowing doctors to prescribe drugs to healthy people; for another, the young bureaucrat assigned to the case was fixated on moral and religious, not scientific, objections to the pill. Despite all this, Enovid was approved for short-term use in October 1960. Click the link below to read more Famous Firsts in Women's History. Source: Firsts in Women's History
  10. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - THE PENNY Did you know... that the United States one-cent coin, often called the penny, is a unit of currency equaling one one-hundredth of a United States dollar. It has been the lowest face-value physical unit of U.S. currency since the abolition of the half-cent in 1857. The first U.S. cent was produced in 1787, and the cent has been issued primarily as a copper or copper-plated coin throughout its history. Its obverse has featured the profile of President Abraham Lincoln since 1909, the centennial of his birth. From 1959 (the sesquicentennial of Lincoln's birth) to 2008, the reverse featured the Lincoln Memorial. Four different reverse designs in 2009 honored Lincoln's 200th birthday and a new, "permanent" reverse – the Union Shield – was introduced in 2010. The coin is 0.75 inches (19.05 mm) in diameter and 0.0598 inches (1.52 mm) in thickness. Its weight has varied, depending upon the composition of metals used in its production. (Wikipedia) Things You Didn’t Know About the Penny As Canada eliminates its pennies from circulation, explore surprising facts about the one-cent coin. JENNIE COHEN | UPDATED: AUG 22, 2018 | ORIGINAL: MAR 30, 2012 1. The word “penny” and its variations across Europe—including the German “pfennig” and the Swedish “penning”—originally denoted any sort of coin or money, not just a small denomination. German Empire: 10 pfennig iron coin 1917 2. Offa, an Anglo-Saxon king, introduced the first English coin known as the penny around 790 A.D.; it was made entirely of silver. Today’s British pennies (called “pence” when referring to a quantity of money) are worth one hundredth of a pound and minted in copper-plated steel. Two silver pennies of Offa's reign. The right-hand penny portrays Cynethryth. 3. The official term for the American penny is “one-cent piece.” However, when the U.S. Mint struck its first one-cent coins—then the size of today’s half-dollars and 100-percent copper—in 1793, Americans continued to use the British term out of habit. 4. Benjamin Franklin reportedly designed the first American penny in 1787. Known as the Fugio cent, it bears the image of a sun and sundial above the message “Mind Your Business.” A chain with 13 links, each representing one of the original colonies, encircles the motto “We Are One” on the reverse. 5. Along with the first U.S. penny’s design, the phrase “a penny saved is a penny earned” has been attributed to Benjamin Franklin. Visitors to the founding father’s grave in Philadelphia traditionally leave one-cent pieces there for good luck. 6. The copper content of U.S. pennies has declined over the years due to rising prices. The expensive metal makes up just 2.5 percent of one-cent pieces minted in 1982 or later; nickels, dimes and quarters, on the other hand, are mainly composed of copper. Still, today’s pennies cost more than their face value—an estimated 1.8 cents each—to produce. 7. In 1909, Teddy Roosevelt introduced the Lincoln cent to commemorate the 100-year anniversary of the 16th U.S. president’s birth. At the time, it was the first American coin to feature the likeness of an actual person (as opposed to the personifications of “liberty” appearing on earlier designs). Fifty years later the Lincoln Memorial was added to the penny’s reverse, complete with a tiny representation of the statue within. 8. The image of Abraham Lincoln on today’s American pennies was designed by Victor David Brenner, an acclaimed medalist who emigrated to the United States from Lithuania in 1890. Born Avigdor David Brenner, Brenner had fled his native land after being persecuted for his Jewish ancestry. Brenner holding a plaster model of the large design for the Lincoln cent (1909) 9. As copper supplies became vital to weapons manufacturing during World War II, the U.S. Mint decided to cast the 1943 penny in zinc-coated steel. Nicknamed “steelies,” these coins caused confusion because they closely resembled dimes; they also rusted and deteriorated quickly. 10. In the 1980s, U.S. military bases overseas abolished the penny and began rounding all transactions up or down to the nearest five cents. This is the system Canada plans to implement later this year. Canadian Penny Source: Wikipedia - Penny | What You Didn't Know About the Penny
  11. 1 point
    What's the Word? - CAPSTONE pronunciation: [KAP-stohn] Part of speech: noun Origin: Middle English, 1350s Meaning: 1. A stone fixed on top of something, typically a wall. 2. (Archaeology) A large flat stone forming a roof over the chamber of a megalithic tomb. Example: "Timothy chose white capstones for the top of the wall for the way they reflected the light." "The capstone was several hundred pounds, and it took all the assembled archaeologists some time to pry it loose." About Capstone This word originated in Middle English from a combination of the words “cap” and “stone,” and references the stone that often “caps” the top of an architectural structure, such as a wall. Did You Know? Capstone can be an architectural or archaeological term, but it also applies to other academics. A capstone can be an academic thesis students use to demonstrate their knowledge through a final body of work. A poetry student might create a portfolio focusing on a particular subject or technique for their capstone. What a capstone project looks like depends on the career path a student is pursuing.
  12. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - INVENTION Did you know... that an invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process. The invention process is a process within an overall engineering and product development process. It may be an improvement upon a machine or product or a new process for creating an object or a result. An invention that achieves a completely unique function or result may be a radical breakthrough. Such works are novel and not obvious to others skilled in the same field. An inventor may be taking a big step toward success or failure. (Wikipedia) Inventions & Discoveries Jack De Graaf | Published: May 29, 2014 It really is impressive to look back at the great inventions of our time. It is even more impressive to look at how quickly some of the greatest inventions were replaced by better technology. Most days we cruise through life not sparing a thought to where the many inventions in our life come from. Many of these inventions are purposeful, but a select few are accidental. Fireworks The discovery of fireworks, or namely the formulation of gunpowder is believed to have occurred by chance approximately 2,000 years ago in China. It is thought that a Chinese cook accidentally mixed three common kitchen ingredients: charcoal, sulfur, and saltpeter. Three items commonly found in kitchens back then. When he found that the mixture he’d created burned. He played about a bit with his new-found fire-powder, as any self-respecting kitchen-alchemist would, and found that when compressed into a bamboo tube it exploded. After a few more combinations the cook found that he could cause different colored explosions and different effects to create what we now know as fireworks. Velcro Out on a hunting trip in 1948 with his trusty canine companion, Swiss engineer George de Mestral noticed the annoying tendency burrs had to stick to his socks and his dog’s fur. Back at home, giving the burrs an examination underneath his microscope, George noticed the tiny ‘hooks’ that stuck burrs to both fabric and fur. Mestral experimented for years with a variety of textiles before having a play with the newly invented nylon, and Velcro was born. However, it wasn’t until roughly two decades later that Velcro’s popularity boomed after NASA took a particular liking to the stick-and-rip stuff. Safety Glass The year is 1903 and French chemist Édouard Bénédictus is chilling out in his lab, mixing up some potions, when he accidentally knocks a flask off his desk, sending it to fall to the ground and shatter… or not. Bemused by the way the flask had not smashed into a hundred pieces on impact, Édouard stooped down to take a closer look. Upon inspection the chemist realized that it had recently contained plastic cellulose nitrate and that this had coated the inside of the flask, thus keeping it from shattering upon impact. Inspired by this mere mishap, Édouard Bénédictus went on to invent Safety Glass, something used on a mass-global level even today. Super Glue In 1942, Dr. Harry Coover set out to create a new precision rifle sight but failed epically. The substance he created, cyanoacrylate, was an utter failure – it stuck to everything. Deflated and dejected, Coover gave up and moved on, his invention forgotten. Fast forward 6 years and Coover is overseeing an experimental new design for airplane canopies. Once again he found himself sticking to things because of that damned cyanoacrylate! This time, however, Coover had a light-bulb moment and observed how this substance formed incredibly strong bonds between objects with no heat applied. This set him and his team to thinking, and with a little tinkering, sticking objects in the lab together, they realized they’d found a use for this annoying gloop. Coover whacked a patent on the discovery and in 1958, 16 years after he’d first gotten stuck, Super Glue was being sold on shelves all around the world. Tea Bags The teabag was the accidental invention of American tea merchant Thomas Sullivan. In 1908, Sullivan started sending samples of tea to his customers in small silken bags. Many of his customers assumed that these samples were to be used in the same manner as metal tea infusers, by putting the entire bag into the teapot. After sending out his samples, Sullivan received comments from his customers that the mesh on the silk was too fine. So he started to develop sachets made of gauze; the first purposely made tea bags. During the 1920s these were commercialized and they grew in popularity. Lo and behold, the tea bag was invented! Penicillin Life before antibiotics was certainly grim. And short. Infections ran rampage, especially STDs, making simple diseases that we wouldn’t bat an eyelid at nowadays a death sentence. Luckily for us in 1929 a young Scottish bacteriologist called Alexander Fleming went on holiday, and before he left he must’ve had his holiday-head on because he forgot to cover a petri-dish of Staphylococcus he was cultivating in his lab. When tidying upon his return, Fleming noticed that a mold in the dish had killed off many of the other bacteria. He identified this mold as Penicillium notatum, and researched it further to find out that it could kill other bacteria and could be given to small animals without them becoming ill. A decade down the line, Howard Florey and Ernst Chain picked up where Fleming left off, isolating the bacteria-slaying substance and turning it into a fully administrable medicine. For their efforts in medicine and science, the trio was awarded the Nobel Prize – and rightly so! The Microwave Percy Spencer, a man orphaned at 18 months old and taken out of school at 12 to work in a paper mill, was the accidental inventor of the Microwave Oven. An engineer at Raytheon after his WWI stint in the American Navy was known to all as an electronics genius. Fiddling about with a microwave-emitting magnetron, a piece commonly found in the innards of radar arrays, Percy suddenly felt a strange sizzling sensation in his trousers. Startled, he took a pause and found that the chocolate bar in his pocket had started to melt. Figuring to himself that the microwave radiation of the magnetron was to blame, he immediately set out to reap the potential. The end-game was the Microwave Oven, savior of students and single-men worldwide. Dynamite Humanity didn’t just figure out how to blow things up with the invention of dynamite – nitroglycerin itself had been around for years. But as Arzt from Lost will tell you: “Nitroglycerin is the most dangerous and unstable explosive known to man”. Alfred Nobel himself can testify to this. He worked with nitroglycerin in a series of experiments, which tragically ended in a fatality that claimed the lives of him, his younger brother, and a few others. Knowing how unstable it could be, Nobel continually tested methods for the safe transportation of nitroglycerin. Whilst transporting some of the deadly explosives, a can fell from a crate, spilling its contents all over the nitroglycerin. Nobel noticed that the can’s contents, a sedimentary type of clay called Kieselguhr, absorbed the nitroglycerin perfectly. Inspired by this simple coincidence, Nobel ingeniously developed a formula where the explosive could be mixed with the clay without hindering its explosive power. He patented his discovery, naming it dynamite, and revolutionized both the world of construction and the world of warfare. Viagra In 1998, pharmaceutical giant Pfizer set out to cure Angina Pectoris, or spasms of the heart’s coronary arteries, in plain English. In order to do this, they developed a pill named UK92480. However, UK92480 failed at its desired effect rather terribly, but the secondary effect of their little blue pill was certainly arousing, pun intended. That pill went on to become one of the world’s biggest-selling drugs, Viagra. In fact, it is estimated that seven Viagra tablets are sold worldwide every second – that’s 604,800 a day! Insulin Although the discovery of insulin was not directly an accident, the discovery that allowed researchers to, later on, find insulin was an accident. In 1889, two doctors at the University of Strasbourg were trying to understand how digestion was affected by the pancreas. In order to do this, they removed a healthy dog’s pancreas, a few days later they noticed that flies were swarming around the dog’s urine. They decided to test the urine and found sugar in it. This led them to the realization that by removing the pancreas they had given the dog diabetes. The two doctors never realized that what the pancreas produced regulated blood sugar. It wasn’t until a series of experiments at the University of Toronto between 1920 and 1922 that researchers were able to isolate a pancreatic secretion that they called insulin. Thus turning diabetes from certain death into a treatable condition. Source: Wikipedia - Invention | Accidental Inventions and Discoveries
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    Fact of the Day - FORGOTTEN SHOWS OF THE 50s, 60s, & 70s My Favorite Martian (1963) Did you know.... that the wonderful world of television is a vibrant hub of creativity, but with so many programs released every year, it can be easy to forget about the ghosts of productions past. These days, we have access to thousands of shows at the click of a button, but rewind a few decades and there were fewer choices. Back in the day, NBC, CBS and ABC were some of the biggest networks of the era (and they still are today). For sitcoms, the premise of these forgotten shows was pretty much the same as we see today; the same goes for police dramas and thrillers. Though humor and values may have changed, networks have kept pace as the years go on. Networks competed ruthlessly against each other to try and come up with the next hit program, but it didn’t always work out. This led to a stream of short-lived series that didn’t last long, and some that simply faded into the ether after they ceased production. Let’s take a look through the archives to see some titles long since forgotten. History By Emma Verner | Updated: Apr 5, 2021 Bourbon Street Beat Starring: Richard Long, Andrew Duggan, Arlene Howell, Van Williams First Aired: October 5, 1959 Number of Seasons: 1 People loved private-eye dramas, such as Columbo and Murder, She Wrote, so producers were sure that the Bourbon Street Beat would be a smashing hit. However, the show lasted only for one season. It simply didn’t have the right mix to keep viewers entertained enough. Still, in the ’50s this was one of the first major shows to feature a private detective agency. The show followed Rex Randolph (Long) and Cal Calhoun (Duggan) as they solved cases for 39 episodes before the show was canceled. However, Rex got another change as Long’s character moved to 77 Sunset Strip. Tales of Tomorrow Starring: Lon Chaney, Jr., Thomas Mitchell First Aired: August 3, 1951 Number of Seasons: 2 You have heard of Twilight Zone, and probably watched it, right? But did you know that Tales of Tomorrow paved the path to this planetary popular show? Episodes were packed with action and paranormal, and each episode lasted for 25 minutes. Stories like Frankenstein and 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea were just some of the tales that kept people mesmerized in front of their screens. The show aired on ABC and every episode focused on a different story which made things interested. Famous actors were often seen as guests including Boris Karloff and Leslie Nielsen. Sadly, the show lasted only for two seasons. Shotgun Slade Starring: Scott Brady First Aired: October 24, 1959 Number of Seasons: 2 Oh, how much people loved western TV shows and movies in the the 1950s. In fact, this genre was so much loved that by the ’60s knocked in the audience was done with a western vibe. This is the main reason why Shotgun Slade proved popular because viewers wanted something different. This was one of a kind Western mystery, with guest appearances from big-name stars at the time, including, Ernie Kovacs, Brett King, Brad Johnson, and more. The main character, Slade was a private investigator who would take on special cases, which was unusual in a Western. This original show lasted for two seasons and in total had 78 episodes. After the show was canceled, Scott Brady continues with his acting career and appeared as Sheriff Frank in 1984’s Gremlins. Flying High Starring: Kathryn Witt, Connie Sellecca, Pat Klous, Howard Platt First Aired: August 28, 1978 Number of Seasons: 1 The ‘50s and ‘60s had been largely dominated by male-led TV shows. Then the ’70s came and television started offering more female-led shows. One of them was Flying High, a comedy about three beautiful air hostesses and their work and personal life. Production directly went after models to star in the show. They were hoping to attract viewers faster. n fact, the sales head of CBS, Harvey Shephard, saw the three models on the elevator after the pitch, he called the head of the network and said, “We need this show.” Hopes for the show were big, but the show ultimately lacked substance and the show was canceled after 18 episodes, due to low ratings and high compression to Charlie’s Angels. The Hathaways Starring: Peggy Cass, Jack Weston, Marcy Grace Canfield, Harvey Lembeck, Barbara Perry First Aired: October 6, 1961 Number of Seasons: 1 Experienced people from the show biz world claim that working with children and animals is a show new level, but ABC didn’t care much when they ordered The Hathaways. Peggy Cass and Jack Weston portrayed loving parents to chimpanzees. Talking about plot twists, right? The show was sponsored by General Mills and was one of the earliest sitcoms to feature animals on TV. From the commercial side, the show wasn’t successful, but viewers loved it, in a way. All in, the show was a disaster from day one, while costing the network a real fortune. Critics called the show “possibly the worst series ever to air on network TV” and dubbed it “utterly degrading.” Peck’s Bad Girl Starring: Wendell Corey, Marsha Hunt, Patty McCormick, Ray Ferrell First Aired: 1959 Number of Seasons: 1 The biggest issue with Peck’s Bad Girl from the 1959’s was the audience. They simply didn’t get it no matter how much the reduction team put the effort into it. At the time parodies weren’t understood or welcome. Moreover, the whole idea of a family sitcom was too much to digest. The original film Peck’s Bad Girl was actually a silent film released in 1918. The show was canceled faster than it was released. In fact, this show is so unknown that there isn’t even a Wikipedia page about it. Broadside Starring: Edward Andrews, Dick Sargent, Sheila James, Kathleen Nolan, Joan Staley First Aired: September 20, 1964 Number of Seasons: 1 War dramas tend to focus on the male side of things. However, the Broadside decided to shake things a bit. This 1964 show, focuses on the women of the Navy in the World War II, with Kathleen Nolan in a starring role. The show was a success because it was something that no one expected. This show had great lines, an appropriate setting, and an enthusiastic cast that loved the show. Sadly, the show was canceled after only 32 episodes, because the production company simply didn’t have enough space to use the tropical exteriors on the lot. Convoy Starring: John Gavin First Aired: September 17, 1965 Number of Seasons: 1 Convoy followed Commander Dan Talbot (John Gavin) and his faithful crew on a cargo ship and their daily adventures. Their main task was to supply troops with food and other items in World War II. The biggest downside was the show’s black and white color. They choose to go with black and white color, so they could use old war photos. However, the audience was more into shows with vivid colors. Plus, some real-life NAVY people disagreed with various moments of the show, including the fact that women also traveled in convoys. Due to low ratings, the show was canceled. Holmes & Yo-Yo Starring: Jack Sher, Lee Hewitt First Aired: September 25, 1976 Number of Seasons: 1 Every great network knows people love seeing fun duos on TV. Remember Starsky & Hutch, or Cagney & Lacey? Sadly, Holmes & Yo-Yo lasted shortly, although ABC had high expectations from the show. Holmes & Yoyo was an ambitious show, but it was eventually marked as a complete disaster. It was eventually named on TV Guide’s List of the Worst 50 TV Shows of All Time. Click the link below to find other Forgotten Show of the 50s, 60s, & 70s. Source: Forgotten Shows
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    What's the Word? - CORRIGENDUM pronunciation: [kor-ə-JEN-dəm] Part of speech: noun Origin: Latin, early 19th century Meaning: 1. A thing to be corrected, typically an error in a printed book. Example: "The editor issued a corrigendum for the incorrect date in the final copy." "The small typo didn’t merit a corrigendum, but the newspaper still received emails with a correction." About Corrigendum Corrigendum originates from the Latin word “corrigere,” which means to “bring into order.” Did You Know? Books go through a lengthy process to get to publication. Part of that process involves Advance Readers Copies (ARC), which are printed copies of books used for promotional purposes. Not only are ARCs distributed with bloggers, reviewers, and PR in order to create some buzz; it is also a way for authors, editors, and publishers to evaluate their work for corrigendums before the book is finally published.
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    Fact of the Day - BUS A New Routemaster double-decker bus. Did you know... that a bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type is the ssingle-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses while coaches are used for longer-distance services. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special license above and beyond a regular driving license. (Wikipedia) Bus Facts A bus is a large wheeled vehicle meant to carry many different persons along with the driver. It is larger than a car. The name is a shortened version of omnibus, which means "for everyone" in Latin. Buses used to be called omnibuses, but people now simply call them "buses". Buses are an important part of public transport in places all over the world. Many people who do not have cars, especially the third world countries, use buses to get around. Buses make it easy for them to get to where they want to go. A place on a sidewalk/pavement where people wait for a local bus is called a bus stop. A building where people wait for a long-distance bus or where lots of buses meet is called a bus station. History Shillibeer saw the success of the Paris omnibus in service and concluded that operating similar vehicles in London, for the fare-paying public with multiple stops, would be a paying enterprise, so he returned to his native city. His first London "Omnibus", using the same design and name as the Paris vehicle, took up service on 4 July 1829 on the route between Paddington (The Yorkshire Stingo) and "Bank" (Bank of England) via the "New Road" (now Marylebone Rd), Somers Town and City Road. Four services were provided in each direction daily. Shillibeer's success prompted many competitors to enter the market, and for a time buses were referred to as 'Shillibeers'. Benz-Omnibus, 1896 Although passenger-carrying carriages had operated for many years, the new 'omnibus' pioneered a new service of picking up and setting down customers all along a particular route without the need to book in advance. Buses soon expanded their capacity, with additional seats for a few extra passengers provided alongside the driver. By 1845, passengers were being accommodated on the curved roofs, seated back to back in a configuration known as 'knife-board'. In 1852, Greenwood's in Manchester introduced the double-decker vehicle that could seat up to 42. Parisian omnibus, late 19th century In Germany, the first bus service was established in Berlin in 1825, running from Brandenburger Tor to Charlottenburg. In 1850, Thomas Tilling started horse bus services in London, and in 1855, the London General Omnibus Company was founded to amalgamate and regulate the horse-drawn omnibus services then operating in London. By the 1880s, bus services were a commonplace in England, continental Europe, and North America; one company in London was operating over 220 horse-buses. Horse-bus use declined with the advent of steam-buses and motor-buses; the last horse bus in London stopped operation in 1914. Steam buses Amédée Bollée's L'Obéissante (1875) Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation. The first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less likely to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, and caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, and from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation virtually eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, and 10 mph in the country. Trolleybuses World's first trolleybus, Berlin 1882 In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus, typically fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, and two wires hanging from these suspenders; allowing contact rollers to run on these two wires, the current could be conveyed to the tram-car, and back again to the dynamo machine at the station, without the necessity of running upon rails at all." The first such vehicle, the Electromote, was made by his brother Dr. Ernst Werner von Siemens and presented to the public in 1882 in Halensee, Germany. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 near Dresden, in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911. Motor buses The first internal combustion omnibus of 1895 (Siegen to Netphen) In Siegerland, Germany, two passenger bus lines ran briefly, but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler also produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company which was first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898. The vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 kph and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air platform above. With the success and popularity of this bus, Daimler expanded production, selling more buses to companies in London and, in 1899, to Stockholm and Speyer. Daimler also entered into a partnership with the British company Milnes and developed a new double-decker in 1902 that became the market standard. Early LGOC B-type The first mass-produced bus model was the B-type double-decker bus, designed by Frank Searle and operated by the London General Omnibus Company – it entered service in 1910, and almost 3,000 had been built by the end of the decade. Hundreds saw military service on the Western Front during the First World War. Daimler CC Bus 1912. One of five Daimler buses exported to Australia The Yellow Coach Manufacturing Company, which rapidly became a major manufacturer of buses in the US, was founded in Chicago in 1923 by John D. Hertz. General Motors purchased a majority stake in 1925 and changed its name to the Yellow Truck and Coach Manufacturing Company. They then purchased the balance of the shares in 1943 to form the GM Truck and Coach Division. Models expanded in the 20th century, leading to the widespread introduction of the contemporary recognizable form of full-sized buses from the 1950s. The AEC Routemaster, developed in the 1950s, was a pioneering design and remains an icon of London to this day. The innovative design used lightweight aluminum and techniques developed in aircraft production during World War II. As well as a novel weight-saving integral design, it also introduced for the first time on a bus independent front suspension, power steering, a fully automatic gearbox, and power-hydraulic braking. Types Athens bus interior in 2013 Formats include single-decker bus, double-decker bus (both usually with a rigid chassis) and articulated bus (or 'bendy-bus') the prevalence of which varies from country to country. Bi-articulated buses are also manufactured, and passenger-carrying trailers—either towed behind a rigid bus (a bus trailer) or hauled as a trailer by a truck (a trailer bus). Smaller midibuses have a lower capacity and open-top buses are typically used for leisure purposes. In many new fleets, particularly in local transit systems, a shift to low-floor buses is occurring, primarily for easier accessibility. Coaches are designed for longer-distance travel and are typically fitted with individual high-backed reclining seats, seat belts, toilets, and audio-visual entertainment systems, and can operate at higher speeds with more capacity for luggage. Coaches may be single- or double-deckers, articulated, and often include a separate luggage compartment under the passenger floor. Guided buses are fitted with technology to allow them to run in designated guideways, allowing the controlled alignment at bus stops and less space taken up by guided lanes than conventional roads or bus lanes. Bus manufacturing may be by a single company (an integral manufacturer), or by one manufacturer's building a bus body over a chassis produced by another manufacturer. Types of buses Coach / Motorcoach - A bus that is used for driving long distances with as much comfort as possible and more room. It has fewer doors than a city bus. School bus - a bus that takes people to their school or university. In America school buses are yellow while in other countries they may be different. Shuttle buses - a bus that drives between places without many stops. It is often used for sport events and other places where lots of people meet, and at airports. Minibus - A bus that is smaller than normal buses. It can carry about 8 to 25 people. Double decker bus - A bus that has two floors (decks). It can carry about 70 people. Low-floor bus - A bus that is nearer the ground than other buses so you can get in and out more easily. This type is often used in cities. The floor may get lower when the bus stops and higher when it moves. Trolleybus - A bus that gets its energy from electric cables above the street, not from petroleum fuel. Articulated bus - A bus that can bend in the middle so that it can be long and still move in small streets. Guided bus - A bus that is guided on rails like a train but is used on normal streets. Often it can also be used like a normal bus. Neighbourhood bus - It is like a school bus. Training bus - A bus that is used for new drivers to practice with. It might not be safe for passengers and might have been changed so a teacher can easily help the new driver. Gyrobus - A bus which does not use a normal engine. It has a big flywheel of steel or other materials (weighing about one ton) rotating at very high speed (RPM).. Hybrid bus - A bus that has two engines, for example a fuel engine and an electric engine. Police bus - A bus that is used by the police to transport a large number of policemen. Offroad bus - A bus that is made to be used beyond normal roads, often used by the Army. Open-top bus - A bus that has no roof, often used for tourism. Source: Wikipedia - Bus | Facts About Buses
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    What's the Word? - ANAMNESIS pronunciation: [an-əm-NEE-sis] Part of speech: noun Origin: Greek, late 16th century Meaning: 1. The remembering of things from a supposed previous existence (often used with reference to Platonic philosophy). 2. (Medicine) A patient's account of a medical history. Example: "The character spends most of the movie trying to resolve her anamnesis with her current life." "The nurse collected Mr. Collins’ anamnesis while the doctor continued his checkup." About Anamnesis This word originated from the Greek word “anamnēsis,” which means “remembrance.” Did You Know? Experiencing déjà vu — intense feelings of having experienced something before — is often attributed to anamnesis, but may have a more practical explanation. Rather than remembering specific moments from another life, researchers believe that déjà vu occurs because of a few different possibilities: a minor brain “glitch” where short-term memories can be confused with long-term memories, a memory that someone doesn’t properly remember, or possibly from a dream or other subconscious experience.
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    https://store.steampowered.com/app/414160/Nubarron_The_adventure_of_an_unlucky_gnome/ 'Nubarron: The adventure of an unlucky gnome' is currently free on Steam.
  18. 1 point
    What's the Word? - ZELIG pronunciation: [ZEL-ig] Part of speech: noun Origin: American English, 1980s Meaning: 1. A person who is able to change their appearance, behavior, or attitudes, so as to be comfortable in any situation.. Example: "Despite belonging to the PR Team, Harold was a Zelig who easily blended into any department." "Rather than joining a clique in school, Cathy was a Zelig who made friends in different interest groups." About Zelig This word originated in American English in the 1980s based off of a Woody Allen character Leonard Zelig, the titular character in the movie “Zelig” (1983). Eponyms are not always proper nouns, but “Zelig” is usually seen capitalized. Did You Know? A Zelig is a person who is able to change their appearance, behavior, or attitudes to be comfortable in any situation. Similarly, a chameleon is a reptile who is able to change its physical appearance, but not to simply camouflage itself against a background as cartoons might make one believe. Instead, chameleons often change colors to regulate temperature, indicate changes in mood, and communicate with other chameleons.
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    What's the Word? - IMPRIMATUR pronunciation: [im-PRIM-ə-toor] Part of speech: noun Origin: Latin, mid 17th century Meaning: 1. (in singular) A person's acceptance or guarantee that something is of a good standard. 2. An official license by the Roman Catholic Church to print an ecclesiastical or religious book. Example: "Father Matthews decided to seek an imprimatur for his book on religious symbols in the Catholic faith." "His debut novel was marked with an imprimatur from the bestselling horror writer of the decade." About Imprimatur This word developed from the Latin word “imprimere” (let it be printed). Did You Know? The blurb is an example of imprimatur in the literary world. A blurb is a short promotional piece that accompanies a work; on a book, it can usually be found on the dust jacket, the back of the book, or sometimes on the cover. Seeing a blurb from a famous author or celebrity may persuade more people to buy and read it.
  20. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - CULTS Did you know.... that in modern English, a cult is a social group that is defined by its unusual religious, spiritual, or philosophical beliefs, or by its common interest in a particular personality, object, or goal. This sense of the term is controversial, having divergent definitions both in popular culture and academia, and has also been an ongoing source of contention among scholars across several fields of study. The word "cult" is usually considered pejorative. An older sense of the word cult involves a set of religious devotional practices that are conventional within their culture, are related to a particular figure, and are often associated with a particular place. References to the "cult" of a particular Catholic saint, or the imperial cult of ancient Rome, for example, use this sense of the word. While the literal and original sense of the word remains in use in the English language, a derived sense of "excessive devotion" arose in the 19th century. Beginning in the 1930s, cults became the object of sociological study in the context of the study of religious behavior. Since the 1940s the Christian countercult movement has opposed some sects and new religious movements, labeling them "cults" because of their unorthodox beliefs. Since the 1970s, the secular anti-cult movement has opposed certain groups, and in reaction to acts of violence which have been committed by some of their members, it has frequently charged them with practicing mind control. Scholars and the media have disputed some of the claims and actions of anti-cult movements, leading to further public controversy. (Wikipedia) Infamous Cults in History Thea Glassman | Dec 7, 2018 Members of the Manson Family In March 1997, 39 members of Heaven’s Gate, a cult started in the early '70s, put on matching dark clothes, swallowed barbiturates, and placed plastic bags around their heads. It was one of the largest mass suicides in the history of the United States. Although you may have heard of that incident, when it comes to the world's most infamous cults, that's just the tip of the iceberg. INSIDER looked back on some of the most dangerous and infamous cults throughout history and the charismatic leaders who founded them. The Manson Family famously murdered seven people over the course of two nights to start a race war. Charles Manson was convicted of first-degree murder in 1971. In the late '60s, Charles Manson brought together a group of displaced young people and called them his "family." They settled in Spahn Ranch, a sprawling former movie studio near Los Angeles, where drugs were free-flowing, mandatory orgies were enforced, and Manson pushed his ideas about an imminent race war. The cult leader told his followers he wanted them to go on a killing spree. On August 8, 1969, a few members of the cult headed to a Beverly Hills home and murdered five people, including actress Sharon Tate. They wrote the word "PIG" in Tate's blood on the door. The violence continued the next night when Rosemary and Leno LaBianca were murdered in their Los Feliz home by Manson's followers on his orders. Rosemary was stabbed 14 times. Manson was convicted of first-degree murder in 1971. He served out his prison sentence until he died on November 19, 2017, at age 83. Members of Heaven’s Gate were told that God was an alien. 39 members died by suicide. Bonnie Nettles, one of the founders of the cult. In the early '70s, Marshall Applewhite and Bonnie Nettles went on a road trip across America and found a group of people they dubbed "the crew." Applewhite told his followers many things, including that he was the second coming of Jesus Christ, the end of the world was upon them, and that God was an alien. He encouraged them to give away all their money and cut off contact with their families. Cult members were also put on a Master Cleanse diet of lemonade, cayenne pepper, and maple syrup, in order to get rid of sexual thoughts. Eight men volunteered to be surgically castrated. In March 1997, 39 members of Heaven's Gate donned dark outfits and matching Nike shoes. They drank vodka and ate applesauce and pudding that contained barbiturates and put plastic bags over their heads to suffocate themselves. When police officers entered the home, they found a line of bodies, each covered with purple fabric. It was one of the largest mass suicides in the history of the United States. Members of Aum Shinrikyo left five bags filled with a toxic nerve agent on three Tokyo train lines during rush hour. The cult was led by Shoko Asahara. The cult Aum Shinrikyo was founded in the '80s by Shoko Asahara. He claimed to be Christ and — at one point — garnered tens of thousands of followers across the world. His teachings started out spiritual and then became increasingly violent. Cult members even paid money to drink Asahara's blood. On March 20, 1995, members of Aum Shinrikyo left five bags filled with a toxic nerve agent on three Tokyo train lines during rush hour. Passengers began choking and throwing up. 13 people died because of the attack and 5,800 were injured. As months went by, the cult tried — and failed — to attack other subway stations with a deathly cyanide. Asahara was sentenced to death, along with 12 other members of Aum Shinrikyo. Seven members were executed in July of 2018, including Asahara himself. The other six members are still on death row in Japan. The Branch Davidians had a 51-day standoff with the FBI. Branch Davidian cult members Brad Branch, Kathryn Schroeder, and Kevin Whitecliff on their way to the Waco federal courthouse. David Koresh believed that he could talk to God. He also thought that the world was ending. The cult leader managed to convince more than 100 people to move to a compound outside of Waco, Texas, and follow his teachings (which included his belief that men could have multiple wives, including girls as young as 10). On February 28, 1993, the FBI arrived on the scene to arrest Koresh and ended up in a 51-day standoff. "Never before have so many heavily armed and totally committed individuals barricaded themselves in a fortified compound in a direct challenge to lawful federal warrants," a report from the Justice Department said. In the end, the standoff came to a close when the compound combusted into flames. 75 people died, and Koresh was found with a gunshot wound to the head. Children of God was accused by numerous members of child abuse. It later rebranded to The Family International. A Children of God family walking along t he Texas countryside in 1971. The Children of God was established in the late '60s by David Berg, a traveling preacher. They believed in "free love" that reportedly involved female members recruiting with sex (sometimes known as "flirty fishing") and survivors say children were regularly abused. Both Rose McGowan and Joaquin Phoenix grew up in the Children of God. "There was sexual abuse for myself from the age of 4, not just from my dad who got convicted, but from various other members of the cult, some related, some not," Verity Carter, who grew up in the cult, told BBC News. "I wasn't comfortable with the things being done to me but if I asked a question I got beaten or put on silence restriction. I was punished a lot because I was never able to stop asking questions." Berg died in 1994. The Children of God later rebranded and changed its name to the Family of Love, and later The Family International after it had been labeled a cult and was investigated by the FBI and Interpol. Jim Jones founded The People's Temple and instructed all of his followers to drink cyanide-laced Flavor Aid. More than 900 people died. Hundreds of people died in the Jonestown settlement. In 1955, Jim Jones founded The People's Temple in Indianapolis. He grew concerned that a nuclear attack would fall on the area, so he moved his congregation to Eureka, California, which he thought would be safer. Paranoia struck again in 1977 (this time born out of media attention), and Jones moved The People's Temple to a settlement in Guyana dubbed Jonestown. US Congressman Leo Ryan decided to visit The People's Temple's new location in Guyana in 1978 in order to investigate reports of abuse of members. He was shot and killed by four members of The People's Temple. Jones then instructed all of his followers to drink Flavor Aid laced with cyanide. Over 900 dead bodies were discovered at the settlement, including Jones, who had a bullet wound to the head. In an unsigned suicide note, one member of the cult wrote: "If nobody understands, it matters not. I am ready to die now. Darkness settles over Jonestown on its last day on earth." Category of Cults Cults come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Not every person’s experience will fit neatly into these following categories, but this list should provide some idea of the range of cults and their reach into every walk of life. Eastern cults Eastern cults are characterized by belief in spiritual enlightenment and reincarnation, attaining the Godhead, and nirvana. Usually the leader draws from and distorts an Eastern-based philosophy or religion, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, or Sufism. Sometimes members learn to disregard worldly possessions and may take on an ascetic and/or celibate lifestyle. Practices and influence techniques include extensive meditation, repeated mantras, altered states of consciousness, celibacy or sexual restrictions, fasting and dietary restrictions, special dress or accoutrements, altars, and induced trance through chanting, spinning, or other techniques. Religious cults Religious cults are marked by belief in a god or some higher being, salvation, and the afterlife, sometimes combined with an apocalyptic view. The leader reinterprets Scripture (from the Bible, Koran, Talmud, or Cabala) and often claims to be a prophet, if not the messiah. Typically the group is strict, sometimes using such physical punishments as paddling and birching, particularly of children. Often members are encouraged to spend a great deal of time proselytizing. Included here are Bible-based, neo-Christian, Islamic, Jewish or Hebrew, and other religious cults, many of which combine beliefs and practices from different faiths. Practices and influence techniques include speaking in tongues, chanting, praying, isolation, lengthy study sessions, faith healing, self-flagellation, or many hours spent evangelizing, witnessing, or making public confessions. Political, racist, or terrorist cults Political, racist, or terrorist cults are fueled by belief in changing society, revolution, overthrowing the perceived enemy or getting rid of evil forces. The leader professes to be all knowing and all powerful. In some cases, adherents may be more drawn to an extreme ideology rather than a leader per se. Groups tend to operate as secret cells. Often the group and/or individuals are armed and engage in violent activities, including arson, kidnapping, bombing, and suicide bombs. Such groups typically meet in secret with coded language, handshakes, and other ritualized practices. Members consider themselves an elite cadre ready to go to battle. Practices and influence techniques include paramilitary training, reporting on one another, fear, struggle or criticism sessions, instilled paranoia, violent acts to prove loyalty, long hours of indoctrination, or enforced guilt based on race, class, or religion. Psychotherapy, human potential, mass transformational cults Psychotherapy, human potential, mass transformational cults are motivated by belief in striving for the goal of personal transformation and personal improvement. The leader is self-proclaimed and omniscient, with unique insights, sometimes a “super-therapist” or “super-life coach.” Practices and techniques include group encounter sessions, intense probing into personal life and thoughts, altered states brought about by hypnosis and other trance-induction mechanisms, use of drugs, dream work, past-life or future-life therapy, rebirthing or regression, submersion tanks, shame and intimidation, verbal abuse, or humiliation in private or group settings. Commercial, multi-marketing cults Commercial, multi-marketing cults are sustained by belief in attaining wealth and power, status, and quick earnings. The leader, who is often overtly lavish, asserts that he has found the “way.” Some commercial cults are crossovers to political and religious cults because they are based on ultra-conservative family values, strict morals, good health, or patriotism. Members are encouraged to participate in costly and sometimes lengthy seminars and to sell the group’s “product” to others. Practices and influence techniques include deceptive sales techniques, guilt and shame, peer pressure, financial control, magical thinking, or guided imagery. New Age cults New Age cults are founded on belief in the “You are God” philosophy, in power through internal knowledge, wanting to know the future, or find the quick fix. Often the leader presents herself or himself as mystical, an ultra-spiritual being, a channeler, a medium, or a superhero. New Age groups, more so than some of the other types, tend to have female leaders. Members rely on New Age paraphernalia, such as crystals, astrology, runes, shamanic devices, holistic medicine, herbs, spirit beings, or Tarot or other magic cards. Practices and influence techniques: magic tricks, altered states, peer pressure, channeling, UFO sightings, “chakra” adjustments, faith healing, or claiming to speak with or through ascended masters, spiritual entities, and the like. Occult, satanic, or black-magic cults Occult, satanic, or black-magic cults are generated through belief in supernatural powers, and sometimes worship of Satan. The leader professes to be evil incarnate. Animal sacrifice and physical and sexual abuse are common; some groups claim they perform human sacrifice. Practices and influence techniques include exotic and bizarre rituals, secrecy, fear and intimidation, acts of violence, tattooing or scarring, cutting and blood rituals, sacrificial rituals, or altars. One-on-one or family cults One-on-one or family cults are based in belief in one’s partner, parent, or teacher above all else. Generally an intimate relationship is used to manipulate and control the partner, children, or students, who believe the dominant one to have special knowledge or special powers. Often there is severe and prolonged psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. Practices and influence techniques include pleasure/pain syndrome, promoting self-blame, induced dependency, induced fear and insecurity, enforced isolation, battering and other violent acts, incest, or deprivation. Cults of personality Cults of personality are rooted in a belief that reflects the charismatic personality and interests and proclivities of the revered leader. Such groups tend to revolve around a particular theme or interest, such as martial arts, opera, dance, theater, a certain form of art, or a type of medicine or healing. Practices and influence techniques include intense training sessions, rituals, blatant egocentrism, or elitist attitudes and behaviors. Source: Wikipedia - Cult | Facts on Infamous Cults | Cults in America
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    What's the Word? - RAILLERY pronunciation: [RAY-lə-ree] Part of speech: noun Origin: French, mid 17th century Meaning: 1. Good-humored teasing. Example: "When John was the only one who fell for the prank, the crew engaged in a little raillery at his expense." "The mayor took the raillery at the reception in stride." About Raillery This word developed from the French words “raillerie” and “railler” (to rail). Did You Know? The roast — a comedic event where a guest of honor consents to be subjected to raillery by comedians, fans, friends, and family members — originated in a New York nightclub in the 1940s. A roast usually consists of a blend of insult humor, teasing, and genuine compliments, with the goal of making the audience (and the guest of honor) laugh.
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    What's the Word? - LEONINE pronunciation: [LEE-ə-niyn] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Late Middle English, 1350s Meaning: 1. Of or resembling a lion or lions. Example: "The leonine habitat was one of the top attractions at the zoo." "The actor’s leonine face made him a popular choice for charming villains." About Leonine While this word as an adjective developed in Late Middle English by way of Old French, it originally comes from the Latin word “leoninus,” derived from “leo” and “leon” (lion). Did You Know? While the word leonine might bring to mind the iconic image of a maned, male lion, they actually do very little in the wild. Instead, the core of a pride (a group of lions) are the females of the group, who are largely responsible for securing most of the food, raising offspring, and guarding territory.
  24. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - PROTHETHIC LIMBS Did you know.... that in medicine, a prosthesis or prosthetic implant is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or a condition present at birth. Prostheses are intended to restore the normal functions of the missing body part. (Wikipedia) Facts About The History Of Prosthetic Limbs SAVANNAH OLIVIA SKINNER | APRIL 9, 2019 Unlike the gecko and the octopus, humans, unfortunately, can’t regrow lost limbs after they’ve been severed. That’s why prosthesis, artificial limbs, have such a long history in engineering and medicine. From the horrors of war to the devastation of disease, history has provided ample opportunity for innovation. Today, thanks to the imaginations of inventors, amputees have more options than ever before for rehabilitation after such tragic injuries. Here is a list of the most interesting facts in the history of prosthetic technology, from ancient times to the speculations of a distant future. The Egyptian Toe A prosthesis’s purpose is to restore the function of the missing limb. So if you were to imagine early prostheses from history, most would imagine an arm or a leg. That’s why it’s so surprising that one of the earliest prosthetic artifacts was for something as innocuous as a toe. A wooden big toe, roughly 3,000 years old, belonged to a noblewoman in ancient Egypt. But why a toe, of all things? If we are talking functionality, our toes are useful for things like balance and stability while we’re walking, and the big toe in particular bears 40 percent of the weight of each step we take. Also, a big toe would have been needed to properly wear traditional ancient Egyptian sandals. However, there is a second use for this type of prosthesis: the aesthetics and wholeness of the individual. We can’t know for sure, but the noblewoman who wore this prosthesis very possibly had it made to feel more at home in her body and gain a sense of normalcy among those around who were not missing the appendage. This sheds light on how prostheses are devices that aid in both the physical and emotional rehabilitation of their wearers. General Marcus Sergius Ancient Rome was a civilization known for its many battles and wars, so it stands to reason with all the fighting and maiming that the Romans would have made some contributions to the history of prostheses. General Marcus Sergius and his iron right hand are the stuff of legends. In his second year in the military, Sergius lost his right hand. Whether he made the prosthesis himself is unclear, but eventually, after fighting several battles with only one hand, he acquired a prosthetic hand that was strapped to his arm. The prosthesis was made to hold his shield. The loss never slowed Sergius down. He escaped capture by the enemy twice and freed the cities of Carmona and Placentia from enemy hold. His courage and character show that disability only holds you down as much as you let it. The Rigveda The Egyptian toe may have been one of the earliest prostheses found, but the Rigveda is the earliest known document that mentions prostheses. Written between 3500 and 1800 BC in India, part of the document tells the story of the warrior queen Vispali (also spelled “Vispala”). Translated from Sanskrit, it says, “When in the time of night, in Khela’s battle, a leg (caritra) was severed like a wild bird’s pinion, Straight ye gave Vispali a leg of iron that she might move what time the conflict opened.” The Vedas [Hindu for “Knowledge”] have been known to contain references to early practices that reflect how we practice medicine and surgery today. Although the iron leg is not described, it wouldn’t be unwise to suspect that its inclusion in the story references the use of prostheses at that time in history. As a side note, there is some debate on whether Vispali was a human or if she was, strangely enough, a horse. Most scholars assume she was not a horse, but there are a small fraction of people who prefer the horse mythology over the warrior queen. To each their own. Ambroise Paré Losing a limb used to be the sort of thing that happened only by some horrible accident (or in battle, of course). Ambroise Pare, a French barber-surgeon, was a pioneer in exploring amputation as a medical procedure, which he introduced in 1529. Pare perfected the surgical procedures to safely remove the limbs of injured soldiers. Pare also pioneered the use of wire or thread to constrict the patient’s blood vessels to keep them from bleeding out while in surgery. Saving some extra skin and muscle during surgery to cover the resulting stump was also one of Pare’s techniques, called “flap amputation.” Pare also developed designs for prosthetic hands and above-the-knee legs. Pare kept a notebook with the designs for all of his prostheses. This included an amusing drawing of a prosthetic nose with a rather distinguished fake mustache. The US Civil War It should come as no surprise that the most progress in the development of prostheses came during times of war. It’s estimated that around 30,000 people needed to undergo amputations due to battle injuries during the US Civil War. (Some put the number at 50,000.) With the rise in demand for quality prostheses, a Confederate soldier named James Hanger created the “Hanger Limb.” Hanger became the first Confederate amputee when his left leg was struck by a Union cannonball in the first battle of the Civil War. His leg had to be amputated above the knee, and he was given a wooden leg that he soon found to be inefficient. The Hanger Limb had hinged joints made from metal and barrel staves that made it the most advanced prosthesis of its time. Hanger soon founded a company to distribute his invention. Dubois D. Parmelee Around the same time as James Hanger’s prostheses were first designed, there was another inventor making efforts to improve prosthetic technology. Dubois D. Parmelee, a chemist from New York City, was the holder of several patents having to do primarily with rubber. Parmelee’s contribution to prosthetic technology was focused on how the limb was attached to the body. Before Parmelee, prostheses had harnesses and straps that kept the limb in place. Unfortunately, the movement of the prosthesis could rub painfully against the amputee’s stump. Parmelee invented a suction socket that used atmospheric pressure. Prostheses of this nature would have to be custom-made for each amputee to ensure that the shape and volume were perfect. The atmospheric pressure acted as a vacuum, which kept the prosthesis from aggravating the soft tissue of the amputee. The Artificial Limb & Appliance Service World War I brought more destruction with even more advanced machinery. With all the fighting on the front lines in the mud and bacteria, infection was widespread. With new veterans, some with several amputations, the costs for custom-made prostheses were sky high. During the war, the British government opened a “Limb Service” to deal with the wounded. This was the beginnings of the Artificial Limb & Appliance Service (ALAS) in Wales. This service would persist and evolve after the war and is still active today. Britain wasn’t the only country to fund veteran and amputee services after the wars; such services would become widespread in many developed countries throughout the 20th century. Ysidro M. Martinez The Egyptian toe perfectly demonstrated the need for both form and function in the design for high-quality prostheses. However, prosthetic leg designers often were too focused on replicating the shape of the missing limb. Although the prosthesis would look good, walking with the new leg proved to be clunky and awkward. This all changed when Ysidro M. Martinez, an amputee and inventor in the 1970s, took a more abstract approach. His prostheses were lighter and had a higher center of mass and weight distribution, which reduced friction, balanced gait, and made it easier to speed up and slow down while walking. His invention was only for below-the-knee amputees, but his prostheses proved that such devices could be both functional and stylish, even if they don’t perfectly replicate the appendages that were lost. 3-D Printing We’ve explored the evolution of design, functionality, and purpose for prostheses, all of which have improved increasingly in modern times. Now, it’s time to consider production. As discussed previously, prosthetic limbs need to be custom-made for each amputee so that they’re comfortable and secure while in use. The advances in 3-D printing technology have improved efficiency, and for engineers and physicians, they’ve cut down on the time spent making these prostheses. The prostheses are customizable, and as 3-D printing becomes more commonplace, these devices can be printed by anyone at any time. 3-D printing can even create lightweight covers that create a more human silhouette. The covers give the wearer control over how these prostheses express their sense of self. Smart Prostheses Finally, there is the concept of intelligent prostheses. While the prosthetic limb designs we’ve previously seen are impressive, they still cannot replace the connection that an arm, leg, hand, or foot had to the amputee’s brain. An old-fashioned prosthetic hand may look like a hand and fit the limb it’s attached to, but it still may not be able to grasp and handle objects like the wearer may need it to. That all may change with the development of smart prostheses. Developers are finding ways to connect the brain to artificial intelligence in the prosthesis. So when the amputee thinks of picking up a cup, the prosthesis will move to their will. When the brain sees these new limbs as a part of the body, it will send signals to the remaining muscles. Developers hope to teach the prostheses to react to the contractions of the amputee’s muscles and then respond appropriately. Beyond that, some developers are also designing their prostheses to monitor the person using them. The artificial limbs would monitor their movements and their health to warn them of infection or damage to the prosthesis earlier than the person would have noticed otherwise. Many of these advancements are still in their prototype phase, but as technology becomes more advanced and independent, it’s only a matter of time until smart prostheses become the norm. Source: Wikipedia - Prosthesis | Facts About Prosthetic Limbs
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    What's the Word? - IRREFRAGABLE pronunciation: [ih-REF-rə-gə-bl] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Latin, mid 16th century Meaning: 1. Not able to be refuted or disproved; indisputable. Example: "As a student, it was Kevin’s irrefragable right to play football on school property." "It was an irrefragable truth that Wren was the best manager that the restaurant had ever employed." About Irrefragable This word finds its origins in the Latin word “irrefragabilis,” from the combination of the words “in” (not) + “refragari” (oppose). Did You Know? It takes a specific process to prove that a hypothesis is irrefragable. The scientific process gives a framework for testing and then verifying a hypothesis through producing repeatable results.
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    Fact of the Day - No. 2 CONTRUCTION BATTALION Did you know.... that the No. 2 Construction Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF), was raised in Nova Scotia and was one of two predominantly black battalions in Canadian military history and the only Canadian battalion composed of black soldiers to serve in World War I. Commanded by Lieutenant Colonel D.H. Sutherland, formerly of the 193rd Battalion, CEF, all but one of the unit's 19 officers were white, the exception being Captain William A. White, the unit's Chaplain. (Wikipedia) Canada’s WWI all-Black Military Battalion by Lindsay Ruck | Published Online June 16, 2016 | Last Edited April 16, 2021 The No. 2 Construction Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) — also known as the Black Battalion — was authorized on 5 July 1916, during the First World War. It was a segregated non-combatant unit, the first and only all-Black battalion in Canadian military history. Black Canadians have a long and honourable tradition of patriotism, sacrifice and heroism in the British and Canadian Armed Forces. Following the outbreak of the First World War, Canadians flocked to recruiting stations. From Nova Scotia to British Columbia, hundreds of Black volunteers, eager and willing to serve, were turned away from enlisting in what they were told was a “White man’s war.” The No. 2 Construction Battalion was created after several appeals and protests to top military officials. No. 2 Construction Battalion History of Black Canadians in the Armed Forces Black Canadians have long demonstrated loyalty to king and country by volunteering for military service. During the American Revolution (1775–83), the British Crown encouraged enslaved people to desert their American masters and join the British lines. Eager to escape the shackles of enslavement, thousands heeded the call and worked as labourers for the British, while others worked in combat units. The Black Company of Pioneers, for instance, was raised by the British and based in the American colonies — it served throughout the war (see Black Loyalists; Loyalists). During the War of 1812, Black soldiers helped defend Upper Canada against American invaders. A number of volunteers in the Niagara region were organized into the Company of Colored Men, who played an integral role in the Battle of Queenston Heights. Many Black soldiers in the War of 1812 were former slaves who escaped to Upper Canada to find freedom. Black Soldier painting by Robert Marrion By the 1850s, Black soldiers began receiving military honours for their bravery. William Neilson Hall was one of the first Canadians to be awarded the Victoria Cross — the British Empire’s highest award for valour. Hall, a Black seaman from Horton Bluff, Nova Scotia, risked his life in the relief of Lucknow, India, on 16 November 1857. William Neilson Hall In 1860, before the American Civil War, approximately 600 Black people emigrated from California to Canada to escape racial persecution. They would settle in the colony of Vancouver Island. Unpopular with local residents due to the colour of their skin, they were denied the right to join the volunteer fire brigade and decided to organize a volunteer military force. Officially known as the Victoria Pioneer Rifle Corps, the all-Black force was the first organized troop in the history of Western Canada. Victoria Pioneer Rifle Corps First World War Although Black men were not altogether welcome in the armed forces, there were those who served in a number of combat units during the First World War. This includes the 106th Battalion, Nova Scotia Rifles, CEF, which was authorized 8 November 1915. Recruits were drawn from Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and Newfoundland. As the 106th Battalion began the recruitment process, protest erupted over Black volunteers. DID YOU KNOW? Jeremiah Jones enlisted with the 106th Battalion in 1916, when he was 58 years old (13 years above the age limit). As did many other underage and older enlistees at the time, Jones lied about his age when he signed up. Jones was recommended for a Distinguished Conduct Medal by his commanding officer for his heroic actions during the Battle of Vimy Ridge; however, he did not receive the medal during his lifetime. Samuel Reese, a Black man from British Guiana living in Truro, was told he would only be accepted to the armed forces if he first recruited a certain number of Black soldiers. At the same time, Reese was referred to Commanding Officer Lieutenant-Colonel W.H. Allen for enlistment in the 106th Battalion. Reese also reached out to Reverend William A. White for assistance. White was pastor of Zion Baptist Church in Truro, and he in turn appealed directly to Allen to assist young Black men with the enlistment process. Reverend White made a verbal agreement to put his efforts into recruiting Black men throughout Nova Scotia. DID YOU KNOW? Reverend William A. White’s daughter Portia was considered one of the best classical singers of the 20th century; her voice was described by one critic as “a gift from heaven.” Portia White was the first Black Canadian concert singer to win international acclaim. She was named a “person of national historic significance” by the Government of Canada in 1995. Recruitment Poster In December 1915, the federal government declared that enlistees could not be refused based on their race. This proclamation did not sit well with several white volunteers, who refused to sign up and fight alongside Black soldiers. As there was no official policy for discrimination, recruiting officers were ultimately responsible for selection. Allen felt strongly that a segregated battalion would be the best solution; however, from December 1915 to July 1916, approximately 16 Black volunteers were accepted into the 106th Battalion. The Black soldiers were dispersed throughout the battalion’s four companies. On 15 July 1916, the battalion left for England aboard the RMS Empress of Britain. As was common practice at the time, the 106th Battalion was broken up to provide reinforcements for front-line battalions that had suffered heavy casualties in France. Two black soldiers washing their clothing. Other CEF combat units containing Black volunteers included the 25th Battalion, the 102nd Battalion, the 1st Quebec Regiment and the 116th Battalion. There are a number of battles in which Black Canadians fought, including the Battle of Vimy Ridge and the Battle of Passchendaele (see Curley Christian). No. 2 Construction Battalion Two months after the outbreak of the First World War, the first contingent of Canadian troops arrived in Britain. Across Canada, large numbers of Black men were turned away at recruiting stations strictly on the basis of race (see Prejudice and Discrimination). Many were unwilling to accept this rejection and a battle for the right to fight for one’s country began to take shape. Several Black leaders and white supporters began to question recruiting policies and practices. Concerns were addressed to the highest levels of both the civilian and military authorities. Defence minister Sir Sam Hughes and Major General G.W. Gwatkin received numerous letters requesting an explanation. After receiving word from Hughes that those who so desired could form a platoon in any battalion, J.R.B. Whitney, Black publisher of the Canadian Observer newspaper in Toronto, offered to create a unit of 150 Black soldiers. Despite rigorous recruitment and great interest from Black volunteers, Whitney quickly discovered that officers stationed at headquarters were not willing to accept the platoon and adamantly ignored Hughes’s memorandum. The struggle to form a separate platoon went on for two years. Casualties were reaching alarming proportions overseas and there was a lack of reinforcements. The issue of rejecting Black volunteers had reached the floor of the House of Commons, and many were awaiting a satisfactory response. On 11 May 1916, the British War Office in London called the governor general and expressed its willingness to accept a segregated unit. The No. 2 Construction Battalion was formally authorized 5 July 1916 as a unit of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. Due to the racial composition of the battalion, it was difficult to find a commander. Lieutenant-Colonel Daniel H. Sutherland, of River John, Pictou County, eventually accepted the position of Commanding Officer. The battalion was granted special authority to recruit throughout Canada. Nova Scotia provided the largest group, with more than 300 recruits. Enlistments also came from the United States and the British West Indies. Headquarters for the Black Battalion were first established at the Market Wharf in Pictou, Nova Scotia. On 9 September 1916, headquarters were relocated to Truro, Nova Scotia, as Sutherland felt the presence of a Black community would stimulate recruitment. Reverend William A. White was appointed chaplain and given the rank of honorary captain. The Williamsburg, Virginia, native was reportedly the only Black officer in the Canadian military at that time. DID YOU KNOW? [Reverend William A. White’s son Bill was a composer and social activist who became the first Black Canadian to run for federal office, representing the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in the Toronto constituency of Spadina in 1949. He was made an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1970 for “services to the community and his contribution to better relations and understanding between people of different racial background.”] Despite enthusiasm from hundreds of Black men, there was still great difficulty in recruiting the desired target of approximately 1,000 volunteers. This may be attributed to the rejection and humiliation Black men experienced when previously turned away at recruiting stations; the objection to serving in a segregated non-combatant labour battalion; and the exclusion of Black immigrants, especially in Western Canada. In December 1916, Sutherland received word from Ottawa that the battalion was needed overseas immediately. Sutherland confirmed that the unit would be ready to depart the last week of February 1917. Three soldiers in a German dug-out captured during the Canadian advance east of Arras. Conscription On 29 August 1917, the Canadian government passed the Military Service Act to reinforce depleted troops overseas. With some exceptions, the Act made every British subject between the ages of 20 and 45 who was, or had been, residing in Canada since 4 August 1914 liable for active service. Black men, who were turned away from enlistment due to the colour of their skin from 1914 to 1916, were now subject to conscription. Those embittered by racism and discrimination refused to respond to this new law. Many of these men were plucked from the streets and held against their will if they would not enlist. No. 2 Construction Battalion Forcing Black men to enlist contradicted the exclusion Black men initially faced, and many military authorities still wanted to maintain racial segregation. Despite training as infantry alongside White conscripts in Canada, many Black soldiers were placed in segregated units and assigned to labour duties upon their arrival in England. Details on the Front The Black Battalion embarked from Pier 2 in Halifax on 28 March 1917 aboard the SS Southland. Prior to dispatch, a high-ranking officer suggested the battalion be sent overseas on a separate ship without a naval escort to avoid offending fellow passengers. The motion was rejected and the 19 officers and 605 other ranks, along with 3,500 non-Black troops from other units, arrived in Liverpool, England, following a 10-day voyage through submarine-infested waters. Loading Ammunition Four members of the Canadian Corps pose with ammunition before loading it into tramway cars to be taken up the line. Most black soldiers who served in the Canadian Expeditionary Force remained segregated in labour units. Few were allowed to serve in combatant roles. As a construction unit, the battalion was tasked with non-combat support roles, which included building roads, railway tracks and bridges, defusing land mines to allow troops to move forward, removing the wounded from the battlefield and digging and building trenches. In early May 1917, orders were received to downgrade the battalion to a company because it had fallen under strength. A battalion is generally comprised of 600 to 800 soldiers, and the battalion had lost a number of men who had fallen ill or lost their lives. The unit proceeded to France and the Swiss border, where it was attached to the Canadian Forestry Corps, CEF, and performed logging operations. The majority of soldiers served at Lajoux in the Jura Mountains, while smaller detachments joined Forestry units at Péronne, a commune of the Somme department in Picardie in northern France, and Alençon, a commune in Normandy, France. Legacy and Significance The No. 2 Construction Battalion was officially disbanded on 15 September 1920. Their story represents a group of determined men who fought racism and discrimination at every turn for the basic right to serve one’s country. While most soldiers returned home from war as heroes, the men of the Black Battalion didn’t receive proper recognition until decades later. On 12 November 1982, Senator Calvin W. Ruck and the Black Cultural Society of Nova Scotia hosted a recognition and reunion banquet held at the Lord Nelson Hotel in Halifax for nine Black veterans of the First World War. Senator Ruck went on to write The Black Battalion 1916–1920: Canada’s Best-Kept Military Secret (1986), a book that details the story of the No. 2 Construction Battalion and profiles its veterans. Many veterans of the Black Battalion were buried in Camp Hill Cemetery in Halifax. Each grave was marked by a flat, white stone, forcing visitors to crouch down and grope the grass to find loved ones. In 1997–98, Senator Ruck successfully lobbied the Department of Veterans Affairs, and each soldier received a proper headstone and inscription in 1999. Other commemorations of the battalion include a permanent monument on Market Wharf in Pictou, an annual commemoration ceremony in Pictou, and an official stamp launched by Canada Post on 1 February 2016 to mark the 100th anniversary of the Black Battalion. In addition, the film Honour Before Glory (2001), written and produced by Reverend William White’s great nephew Anthony Sherwood, and the poem “Black Soldier’s Lament” by George Borden — which has been published in Canadian and American Grade 10 textbooks — tell the story of the No. 2 Construction Battalion. Members of the No. 2 Construction Battalion, 5 July 1920 The photograph above was taken at the dedication of a plaque in memory of the members of the No. 2 Construction Battalion, an all-Black non-combat battalion that served in the First World War. The plaque was (and is) in the main hall of Queen's Park. Rev. Mrs. H.F. Logan and Rev. H.F. Logan, who spearheaded the campaign for the plaque, are at left of centre. Also included in the photograph are Rt. Rev. Samuel R. Drake, General Superintendent of the British Methodist Episcopal Conference; Ontario Premier Ernest Charles Drury; and Sir Henry Pellatt. Source: Wikipedia - No. 2 Construction Battalion | No. 2 Construction Battalion Facts
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    This week, Anti rambles about Redo of Healer
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    What's the Word? - CRYPTONYM pronunciation: [en-TEL-ə-kee] Part of speech: noun Origin: Latin, late 19th century Meaning: 1. A code name. Example: "Entrants’ names were replaced with cryptonyms to prevent any possible bias." "The news referred to the member of the jury by a cryptonym to preserve anonymity." About Cryptonym Cryptonym developed from the combination of the Latin word “crypto” (hidden) + the word root “onym.” Did You Know? Some of the most recognizable code names are found in the White House. While code names were originally meant to keep the movements of important figures confidential, today these cryptonyms are used simply for tradition. Some notable code names from Presidents past include “Lancer” for President John F. Kennedy (a reference to Camelot and King Arthur’s court) and “Deacon” for President Jimmy Carter (a reference to his commitment to the Christian faith).
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    Fact of the Day - METAPHOR A political cartoon by illustrator S.D. Ehrhart in an 1894 Puck magazine shows a farm woman labeled "Democratic Party" sheltering from a tornado of political change. Did you know.... that a metaphor is a figure of speech that, for rhetorical effect, directly refers to one thing by mentioning another. It may provide clarity or identify hidden similarities between two different ideas. Metaphors are often compared with other types of figurative language, such as antithesis, hyperbole, metonymy and simile. One of the most commonly cited examples of a metaphor in English literature comes from the "All the world's a stage" monologue from As You Like It: All the world's a stage, And all the men and women merely players; They have their exits and their entrances ... —William Shakespeare, As You Like It, 2/7 (Wikipedia) Things You Should Know About Metaphor TERRIBLEMINDS | August 14, 2012 1. COMPARING TWO UNLIKE THINGS A metaphor is a little bit of writing magic that allows you, the writer, to draw an unexpected line between two unlike things. You are comparing and connecting things that have no business being compared or connected. How is a wasp like an auto mechanic? A banana like a storm cloud? How do you talk about a nuclear winter while evoking a beautiful symphony? The metaphor is the writer holding up one thing (“a double-headed dildo”) and asking — nay, demanding — that the reader think of something else (“a floppy slice of freshly-baked zucchini bread”). It is a subversion of expectation; a sabotage of imagery. Metaphor is metamorphosis. You can tell that’s true because they both have “meta” and “pho.” Or something. 2. BECAUSE COMPARING TWO SAMEY THINGS IS SILLY A metaphor fails if it’s obvious. Comparing two alike things is meaningless in terms of providing engagement and enlightenment to the audience. “That horse is like a donkey” simply isn’t meaningful. We already know that. We describe the things that need describing. You wouldn’t say, “This double-headed dildo is like a single-headed dildo” and call that a metaphor. All you’re doing there is thwacking the audience about the head and neck with your +5 Double-Headed Dildo of Obviousness. 3. LITERARILY, NOT LITERALLY Further, a metaphor is not to be taken literally. “A snake is like a worm” is literally true, and thus fails as a metaphor. Metaphors operate best as purely figurative. Life is not literally a bowl of cherries. The power of metaphor is in its ability to transcend the real; in this way, metaphor is like an artsy-fartsy version of sarcasm. It is a beautiful lie. I say one thing, but I mean another. 4. SIMILE VERSUS METAPHOR A simile uses like or as to connect things; a metaphor eschews both words. Simile: “My love for you is like old lunchmeat. Still here, but way past its expiration date.” Metaphor: “My love for you is a zombie. Dead but still walking around.” The simile creates a little distance; this is like that. Not same, but similar. A metaphor undercuts that distance. This is that. Not just similar, but absolutely (though abstractly) the same. 5. A PHD IN SYMBOLOGY Metaphors and symbols are not the same thing. A metaphor is stated outright. I say it. I write it. I don’t hide from it. When I say that “her vagina is like the blown-out elastic in a pair of old underpants,” or, “his dick is like soft serve,” I’m not trying to hide what I think or feel. I’m shoving the imagery right into your eyeholes. A symbol is far cagier, far more guarded. A character who symbolizes something (sin, colonialism, addiction, zoo-keepers, reality television) does so in an unspoken way. The author never takes the time to complete that picture. A metaphor draws the line between two unlike things. The symbol never draws the line — it just casually gestures in the direction of the other thing, hoping you’ll connect the dots yourself. 6. TAKE LITERARY VIAGRA TO EXTEND YOUR METAPHORS A metaphor that kicks open the door to its cage and runs around a little before being put down is an extended metaphor, or a “conceit.” It refuses to be kept to a single iteration, and will get its roots and shoots all up into the paragraph where it initially appeared. The metaphor continues — it’s not enough to say that “urban development is like a cancer” and leave it at that. The metaphor grows and swells, blister-like, using the whole paragraph to explore the metaphor to its fullest: gentrification is metastasis, developers are like free radicals, rich guys like tumors, and so on and so forth. 7. ELEGANCE IN SIMPLICITY Err on the side of simplicity rather than complexity. The weightier and more Byzantine a metaphor becomes, the more likely that it becomes unstable, untenable, overwrought. When I say, “John’s a dinosaur,” the message is clear: he’s old-school, probably too old-school, and if he’s not careful he’s going to get face-punched by a meteor. But I don’t need to say all those things. I don’t need to beat the metaphor into the ground until it’s a pulpy, shitty mess; it’s not a watermelon, and I’m not Gallagher. The audience wants to do work. They want to take the metaphor and help draw the line. Hand them a simple machine, not a Rube Goldberg device. 8. WINK, WINK, NUDGE, NUDGE Some metaphors are implied. When you say, “Gary’s coming for you, Bill — that guy can smell blood in the water from a mile away,” we’re using a metaphor to imply that Gary is a shark, but without actually saying that he’s a shark. The power here is in letting the audience bring a little something to the table. The danger here is you reach too far and fail to make the implication click. 9. BROKEN METAPHORS ARE BRICK WALLS Some metaphors just don’t work. You maybe think they do, because in your head you’ve drawn a line that makes sense to you and… well, nobody else. The reader’s sitting there, scratching his head, wondering just what the hell a blue heron has to do with a head cold and what happens is, it stops the reader dead. Every component of your writing is binary — it’s either a 1 or a 0, it’s either Go, Dog, Go, or Guy Running Full Speed Into A Tree. It’s lubricant (facilitates the reader reading), or a fist (forces the reader to stop). A broken metaphor asks the reader to stand over the confounding imagery, chewing on it the way one must jaw hard on a hunk of gristly steak. Make sure you’re not putting out metaphors that are clear to you and only you. Think of the reader, not of the writer. 10. MIXED METAPHORS MAKE US THROW RED BULL CANS AT YOUR HEAD If I wanted to mix metaphors, I might take that love/lunchmeat/zombie metaphor and smoosh those together: “My love is like a zombie — it’s dead and walking around long past its expiration date.” It’s mixed because it’s in effect creating a metaphor within a metaphor: love is like a zombie, and a zombie is kind of like lunchmeat in that it has an expiration date even though human bodies and zombies don’t usually have expiration dates and love isn’t really a zombie and besides, zombies aren’t real anyway. So, it’s asking the reader to draw the line and say “love = zombie, but zombie = lunchmeat.” It’s not the worst mixed metaphor ever (as one could suggest that a person’s date of death is his ‘expiration date’). You can, of course, get a whole lot worse — the worst ones build off clichés (“Don’t look in the mouth of a upset gift horse of another color before the apple cart or… s… something.”) 11. CLICHÉS MAKE ME KICK-STAB YOU THROUGH A PLATE GLASS WINDOW Let me define for you: “Kick-stab.” It means I duct tape a diver’s knife to the bottom of my boot, and then I focus all of my chi (or: “ki”) into my kick as I drive my knife-boot into your chest so hard it explodes your heart and fires your ragdoll body through a plate glass window that wasn’t even there before but the force of the kick was so profound it conjured the window from another universe. All this because you had to go and use a cliché. Clichés are lowest common denominator writing and serve as metaphors for unimaginative, unoriginal turd-witted slug-brains. KIYAAAKAPOW *kick* *stab* *krrsssh* 12. SHOW US YOUR BRAIN Ew, no, not like that. No, what I mean is: metaphors represent an authorial stamp. They’re yours alone, offering us a peek inside your mind. When a reader says, “I would have never thought to compare a sea squirt to the economic revolution of Iceland,” that’s a golden moment. The metaphor is a signature, a stunt, a trick, a bit of your DNA spattered on the page. 13. THEY ARE THE CHEMICAL HAZE THAT CREATES UNEARTHLY SUNSETS Look at it another way: a sky is a sky is a sky. But when we cast against the sky a chemical haze or the ejecta from a volcanic eruption, it’s like a giant Instagram filter — it changes the sky and gives us heavenward vistas and sunsets or sunrises that are cranked up on good drugs, revealing to us unearthly beauty we never expected to see. The haze or the ejecta are entirely artificial — applied to the sky, not part of the original equation — but it doesn’t matter. That’s metaphor. Metaphor is the filter; it’s a way to elevate the written word (and the world the word explores) to something unexpected, something unseen. Metaphors are always artificial. But that fails to diminish their magic. 14. HOT MOOD INJECTORS Metaphors do not merely carry tone; they can lend it to a story. The metaphors you choose can capably create mood out of the raw nothing of narrative — a metaphor can be icky, depressing, uplifting, funny, weird, all creating moods that are (wait for it, wait for it), icky, depressing, uplifting, funny, or weird. A metaphor is a mood stamp. A tonal injector. Consistency in the tone of your metaphors is therefore key. 15. METAPHOR AS RIB-SPREADER TO SHOW US A CHARACTER’S TRUE HEART A metaphor used to describe a character tells us more about the character than a mere physical description — saying a character is gawky is one thing, but then saying he “walks like a chicken with a urinary tract infection” paints for us a far more distinctive and telling portrait. Evoking those things (the chicken, the yellow of urine), suggests cowardice. 16. DARN THE POLICE Metaphor is part of description and we use description when something in the story breaks the status quo — when it violates expectation and so the audience must have a clear picture of it. You don’t talk about every tree in the forest; you describe that one tree that looks different, the twisted old shillelagh where the character’s brother hanged himself. Metaphor operates the same way: you use a metaphor when you want us to know something new, something different. It’s you pointing us to a thing to say, this thing matters. 17. METAPHORS OPERATE BY A BEAUTIFUL SHORT CIRCUIT OF THE BRAIN, PART ONE Metaphors aren’t just some shit writers invented so they can strut about like pretty purple peacocks. It’s not just a stunt. Metaphors are part of our brains — not just writer’s brains (which are basically rooms where armed chimpanzees force drunken dogs to chase meth-addled cats all day long), but the brains of all humans. Here’s the cool thing about metaphors: our minds know the difference between the real and the metaphorical, and yet, our brains respond to metaphors often the same way they would to reality. You call someone a “dirty bastard,” and our brain pulls the chemical triggers that make us think of, or even feel, a moment’s worth of uncleanliness. How bad-ass is that? THE BRAIN BE STRAIGHT TRIPPIN’, BOO. (Article: “This Is Your Brain On Metaphors.”) 18. METAPHORS OPERATE BY A BEAUTIFUL SHORT CIRCUIT OF THE BRAIN, PART TWO Another awesome thing the brain does with metaphors? We’re sitting there, reading, right? And the part of our brain that’s active is the part associated with reading and language. Ahh, but when we encounter a metaphor, our brain short-circuits and leaves that area — it freaks out for a moment, and kung-fu kicks open the door and runs to the area of the brain more appropriate to the sense triggered in the metaphor. In describing a smell or a touch, the brain goes to those areas and highlights that part of your skull’s mental meatloaf. Example: words describing motion highlight your motor cortex. What this means is supremely bad-ass: it means that good description and powerful metaphor are real as real gets. They trick our brain into a reality response! Stupid brains! Ha ha ha! I just fooled you with words! (Article: “The Neuroscience of Your Brain on Fiction.”) 19. THE SENSORY PLAYGROUND This tells us then that metaphors should use all senses, not just the visual. Mmkay? Mmkay. 20. DOWN IN THE METAPHOR MINES You can stimulate metaphorical thinking. At the simplest level, just make a concerted effort. Walk around, look at things, feel them, smell them, try to envision what those things remind you of — a summer’s day, a calculator watch, a used condom, a wicker basket heavy with roadkill, James Franco. Take one thing and then ask, how is it like another? Find the traits they share, both literal and abstract (hint: it’s the abstract ones that really matter). You can also force such stimulation: sleep or sensory deprivation will do it. So too will the right amount of al-kee-hol (not too much, but not too little, either). Probably the biggest category of “metaphorical stimulator” comes from hallucinogens, which are illegal and you should never do them. BUT IF YOU DO NEGLECT MY ADVICE AND WOLF DOWN A PALM FULL OF FUNNY MUSHROOMS AGAINST MY DOCTORIAL PROHIBITION, you’ll find that your brain makes crazy leaps between things — the very nature of hallucinations is due to the powerful tangling of sensory neurotransmitters (note: not a brainologist). Hallucination is metaphor; metaphor is hallucination. 21. POE TRAY Another critical way to train your brain to love the metaphor: read poetry. Lots and lots of it. Old and new from every geographic region. Then: write it. Poetry is often a doorway to a metaphorical wonderland. You know what else is a doorway to a metaphorical wonderland? Churros. Mmm. Churros. 22. PROFANITY IS A KIND OF METAPHOR I want to point this out because, well, me and profanity? We’re buds. We’re bros. We’re in the Fuck Yeah Sisterhood. We went to space camp together and sold Girl Scout Cookies together and lost our virginities togeth… you know, we don’t need to keep talking about that. What I’m saying is, when I say, “Dave is a shithead,” I don’t mean he’s actually got a literal pile of feces roosting on his shoulders. When I say, “Fuck you” in anger, I don’t mean I actually want to fornicate with you. (I mean, probably.) Profanity is abstraction. It’s dirty, filthy, gooey abstraction. And it is wonderful. 23. METAPHOR IS A STRONG SPICE Don’t overuse metaphor. Every paragraph can’t be a metaphor for another thing — sometimes you just have to say the thing that you want to say without throwing heaps and mounds of abstraction on top of it. 24. BLOOD MAKES THE GRASS GROW No, wait, sorry, I mean, “Practice makes perfect.” Silly me! If you’re not particularly comfortable with metaphors, if they make your throat tight and your body tense and cause you to pee two, maybe three drops of scaredy-urine into your Supergirl underoos, you merely need to practice. Sit down. Write metaphors. Let your brain off its chain and see what it comes up with. Write a whole page — hell, a whole fucking book — of the damn things. Nobody’s reading these. No pressure. Care little. Just write. 25. METAPHORS ARE PART OF AN ARTISTIC FREQUENCY Narrative can, at the basic level, exist in a way where it tells us what has happened or is happening. Right? It serves as a simple explanation, the story being the literal actions taken and words spoken. John went to the grocery store. There he saw Mary. John and Mary kissed by the cantaloupes. John said, “I love you.” Mary Tasered him in the nipples. John died. Mary took his shoes. Whatever. But our storytelling can have levels that go above and below our words, that exist outside the literal flow of events and dialogue spoken. We have subtext. We have authorial intent. We have theme and symbol. And, drum roll please, we have metaphor. Metaphor elevates our narrative. Subtext is an invisible layer but metaphor is very visible, indeed: with metaphor we’re adding new colors to the sensory and experiential wavelength. This is why we use metaphor: to elevate storytelling to more than just the story told. Source: Wikipedia - Metaphor | Facts About Metaphors
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    https://store.steampowered.com/app/351510/Quiplash/ Quiplash is currently free on Steam.
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    Fact of the Day - EARTH DAY The unofficial Earth Day Flag created by John McConnell includes The Blue Marble photograph taken by the crew of Apollo 17 Did you know... that Earth Day is an annual event on April 22 to demonstrate support for environmental protection. First held on April 22, 1970, it now includes a wide range of events coordinated globally by EARTHDAY.ORG including 1 billion people in more than 193 countries. (Wikipedia) Fascinating Facts About Earth Day BY MATT STOFSKY | APRIL 22, 2017 | (UPDATED: APRIL 20, 2020) There are countless demonstrations and gatherings worldwide on Earth Day. Pictured above is a public art piece that was displayed in Washington, D.C. in 2008. Every year on April 22, trees are planted, litter is cleaned up, and awareness for the issues plaguing the planet are raised. In honor of the holiday, which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2020, we’ve gathered together 10 fascinating facts about Earth Day. 1. EARTH DAY WAS CREATED THROUGH THE TIRELESS EFFORTS OF WISCONSIN SENATOR GAYLORD NELSON. Gaylord Nelson speaks at an Earth Day event in 2003. Senator Gaylord Nelson arrived in Washington in 1963 looking to make the fledgling conservation movement—sparked in part by Rachel Carson’s New York Times bestseller Silent Spring, which warned against the harmful effects of widespread pesticide usage—a part of the national discourse. After witnessing the aftermath of an oil spill in California in 1969, Nelson doubled down on his commitment to raising environmental awareness. Drawing inspiration from the energetic anti-war movement of the time, he enlisted support from both sides of the political spectrum, and on April 22, 1970, Earth Day was born. 2. JOHN F. KENNEDY PLAYED A ROLE IN EARLY EFFORTS TO PROMOTE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION. In 1963, Gaylord Nelson proposed a "conservation tour" to Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy and Arthur Schlesinger, a member of President Kennedy’s "Best and Brightest" cabinet. Schlesinger privately endorsed the idea to the president, while Nelson wrote a direct memo to Kennedy, a bold move for a freshman senator from Wisconsin. Kennedy, however, was incredibly receptive, and on September 24, 1963, JFK embarked on a conservation-themed multi-state tour. The president, accompanied by Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall, Secretary of Agriculture Orville Freeman, as well as Nelson and a few additional senators, visited 11 states in five days. Nelson was disappointed in the president’s speeches, saying they "didn’t have much sweep or drama to them." In addition, members of the press ignored environmental issues and instead focused their questions on the tense nuclear situation with the Soviet Union. It would be another seven years until Earth Day became a reality. 3. THE FIRST EARTH DAY SAW 20 MILLION AMERICANS TAKE TO THE STREETS. Crowds gather in Union Square in New York City for the first Earth Day in 1970. The first Earth Day marked a strange combination of boisterous rallies and sober reflection on the state of the planet. Protests, demonstrations, fundraisers, nature walks, speeches, concerts, and every sort of civic gathering imaginable took place at colleges, VFW halls, public squares, and parks across the United States on April 22, 1970. Environmental crusaders found themselves thrust into the limelight, and pop culture icons like poet Allen Ginsberg were asked to speak on behalf of Mother Earth. Some of the more colorful displays of the day included mock trials for polluting objects, like an old Chevrolet, which was sentenced to death by sledgehammer. (The car ultimately survived the beating and was donated to an art class.) In New York City, Earth Day celebrations effectively shut down parts of the city. Twenty-thousand people packed into Union Square to see Paul Newman and hear a speech by Mayor John Lindsay, who arrived on an electric bus. 4. THE DATE OF EARTH DAY WAS SPECIFICALLY SELECTED TO MOBILIZE COLLEGE STUDENTS. To head up the Earth Day project, Senator Nelson enlisted Denis Hayes, then a graduate student at Harvard University. As national coordinator, Hayes recruited a staff of 85 energetic young environmental crusaders and grassroots organizers, along with thousands of field volunteers, in order to promote the fledgling holiday across the nation. The team knew that in order to gain the most traction, college students would need to play a central role, as they did in the Vietnam protests of the era. The date that Hayes selected for the first Earth Day was a calculated choice: April 22 on most college campuses falls right between Spring Break and final exams. 5. EARTH DAY FACED CRITICISM FROM THE VERY BEGINNING. President Richard Nixon and his wife, Pat, plant a tree on the White House lawn during the first Earth Day. According to Grist, the first Earth Day faced staunch opposition from conservative groups like the John Birch Society, which claimed that the event was a thinly veiled attempt to honor the 100th anniversary of the birth of Vladimir Lenin. In addition to detractors on the far right of the political spectrum, bleeding-heart environmental crusaders weren’t satisfied, either. Earth Day, they claimed, simply served as a distraction from the more pressing social issues of the day. Journalist I.F. Stone said, "The country is slipping into a wider war in Southeast Asia and we’re sitting here talking about litterbugs." Critics of the holiday also point to the trend of "greenwashing," an attempt by corporations with poor environmental track records to appear conscientious if only once a year. 6. EARTH DAY SPARKED AN UNPRECEDENTED SLATE OF ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION. With bipartisan support in Congress and thousands of civic demonstrations across the country, support for environmental reform in 1970 was undeniable. According to the EPA, "Public opinion polls indicate that a permanent change in national priorities followed Earth Day 1970. When polled in May 1971, 25 percent of the U.S. public declared protecting the environment to be an important goal, a 2500 percent increase over 1969." The 1970s saw the passage of the most comprehensive environmental legislation in U.S. history, including the Clean Air Act, the Water Quality Improvement Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, and the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. In addition, just eight months after the first Earth Day, Richard Nixon approved the creation of a new organization tasked with monitoring the nation’s natural assets: the Environmental Protection Agency. 7. ALTHOUGH IT BEGAN AS AN AMERICAN MOVEMENT, EARTH DAY IS NOW AN INTERNATIONAL PHENOMENON... In 1990, Earth Day expanded to include countries and peoples across the globe, with 200 million people in 141 nations getting involved. A decade later, at the turn of the new millennium, Earth Day shed light on the emerging Clean Energy movement and expanded its reach, spreading to 184 countries with the help of 5000 environmental organizations. Global activities included a massive traveling drum chain in Gabon, Africa, and an unprecedented gathering of hundreds of thousands of concerned citizens at the National Mall in Washington, D.C. According to Earth Day Network, after 40 years, more than 1 billion people participate in Earth Day activities, making it the largest secular civic event in the world. 8. ...AND INTERNATIONALLY, IT'S KNOWN AS INTERNATIONAL MOTHER EARTH DAY. Earth Day is now observed around the world, albeit under a different name: In 2009, the United Nations General Assembly decided to designate April 22 as International Mother Earth Day. The symbol of Mother Earth serves as a common metaphor and representation of our planet in many countries and cultures. In the United States, the holiday is still commonly referred to as Earth Day. 9. IN 2009, NASA PLANTED A HISTORIC "MOON TREE" TO CELEBRATE EARTH DAY. Most of Roosa's original "Moon Trees" were planted in time for the U.S. Bicentennial in 1976. During the Apollo 14 moon mission in 1971, astronaut Stuart Roosa brought with him hundreds of tree seeds including Loblolly Pine, Sycamore, Sweetgum, Redwood, and Douglas Fir. Roosa was a former smokejumper for the U.S. Forest Service, and he transported the seeds in his personal effects as a tribute to his former employer. Roosa and his seeds orbited the Moon 34 times in the command module Kitty Hawk. Scientists were curious whether or not exposure to the microgravity of space would impact the growth of these seeds when returned to Earth. The experiment seemed like a lost cause when, during the post-mission decontamination process, the seed canisters broke open and the seeds were thought to be useless. However, most of the tree seeds were still fit for germination and were successfully planted and cultivated. These trees were planted around National Monuments, as well as in sites all over the world. After decades of growing side-by-side with their Earth cousins, the Moon Trees showed no differences at all. On Earth Day 2009, NASA, in partnership with the United States National Arboretum and American Forests, planted a second generation Moon Sycamore on the arboretum’s grounds in Washington, D.C. 10. THE THEME FOR EARTH DAY 2020 IS "CLIMATE ACTION." Every year since Earth Day 2016, there has been a new theme attached to the holiday in anticipation for its 50th anniversary in 2020. In 2016, it was Trees for the Earth, followed by Environmental and Climate Literacy in 2017, End Plastic Pollution in 2018, and Protect Our Species in 2019. For 2020, organizers went with an obvious campaign: Climate Action. Organizers are hopeful that this will be a day to raise awareness of both the dangers of climate change and the opportunities people have to make a difference in the fight. And despite the social distancing necessitated by the coronavirus pandemic, demonstrations and conferences are still happening, albeit virtually. Head to the Earth Day 2020 website find out more. This story originally ran in 2016. Source: Wikipedia - Earth Day | Facts About Earth Day
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    What's the Word? - POLYCHROMY pronunciation: [PA-lee-KRO-mee] Part of speech: noun Origin: Greek, mid 1800s Meaning: 1. The art of painting in several colors, especially as applied to ancient pottery, sculpture, and architecture. Example: "The artist’s use of vivid polychromy is what makes his sculptures so unique." "The ruins featured faint traces of their original polychromy." About Polychromy The word polychromy originated from the combination of the word “polychrome” with the letter “y”. While polychrome came into prominence through French, it originally came from the Greek word polukhrōmos, which comes from the combination of the words “polu” (many) + “khroma” (color). Did You Know? While Greco-Roman buildings and sculptures are famously depicted in flawless white marble, the ancient world was actually much more colorful than you would assume. Ancient artists used polychromy to decorate their creations in bright, vivid colors. Many of these colors either faded due to the environment or were scrubbed off over time.
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    Fact of the Day - BARBARY PIRATES Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa Did you know.... that the Barbary pirates, or Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Muslim pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli. This area was known in Europe as the Barbary Coast, in reference to the Berbers. Their predation extended throughout the Mediterranean, south along West Africa's Atlantic seaboard and into the North Atlantic as far north as Iceland, but they primarily operated in the western Mediterranean. In addition to seizing merchant ships, they engaged in Razzias, raids on European coastal towns and villages, mainly in Italy, France, Spain, and Portugal, but also in the British Isles, the Netherlands, and Iceland.[2] The main purpose of their attacks was slaves for the Ottoman slave trade as well as the general Arab slavery market in North Africa and the Middle East. Slaves in Barbary could be of many ethnicities, and of many different religions, such as Christian, Jewish, or Muslim. (Wikipedia) This 16th-century corsair was the most feared pirate of the Mediterranean No Spanish ships or ports were safe when dreaded pirate Barbarossa, ally of the powerful Ottoman Empire, sailed the high seas. BY JUAN PABLO SÁNCHEZ | PUBLISHED 12 OCT 2019 | UPDATED 5 NOV 2020 Hayreddin’s brother Oruç was the first to be known as Barbarossa. His nickname was “Father Oruç,” Baba Oruç, which the Italians took to mean barba rossa, or red beard, for Oruç did indeed have a red beard. Hayreddin inherited the nickname even though his hair was golden brown. López de Gómara, a Spanish chronicler, described Barbarossa: “He was of a cheerful disposition when he did not grow fat; he had very long eyelashes, and his sight became very poor. He lisped, could speak many languages, and was very cruel, exceedingly greedy, and very luxurious in both senses.” From his base in Algiers, North Africa, Hayreddin Barbarossa terrorized the western Mediterranean in the first half of the 16th century. He fearlessly hijacked ships and sacked ports, loading his pirate galleys with vast hoards of treasure and prisoners fated for slavery. Yet Barbarossa was much more than a soldier of fortune. He was a skilled warrior with a political instinct that led him to found a prosperous kingdom, allied with the Islamic empire of the Ottoman Turks, and actively defy one of Christian Europe’s most powerful monarchs, the Spanish emperor Charles V. Brothers in piracy Barbarossa had modest beginnings. He was born on the Greek island of Lesbos, the son of a Christian renegade who had joined the Ottoman army. Oruç, Barbarossa’s elder brother, was the first to take to the sea in search of adventure. It is unclear whether Oruç joined the powerful Ottoman navy or a merchant vessel, but in 1503 his ship was attacked and captured by the Knights Hospitaller, a Christian military order then based on the island of Rhodes, in present-day Greece. Oruç spent two terrible years as a galley slave on one of the knights’ ships but eventually managed to escape. Reunited with his brother, they settled on the island of Djerba, off the coast of Tunisia. The place was a veritable den of corsairs, and they enthusiastically joined their ranks. (Explore the remnants of Blackbeard's pirate ship discovered off the coast of North America.) The fort of Bizerte, in Tunisia, fell to Barbarossa in 1534 but surrendered to the Spanish the following year. The brothers found they had a talent for piracy. Their attacks on Christian ships, especially Spanish ones, brought them huge amounts of loot and attracted the attention of the emir of Algiers, with whom they joined forces. Soon they commanded a fleet of about a dozen ships, which they used to launch daring attacks on Spanish strongholds in North Africa. It was while attacking one of these that Oruç lost an arm to a shot from an early musket called a arquebus. A pirate haven Oruç had begun to dream of becoming more than a mere pirate: he wanted to rule his own North African kingdom. His chance came in 1516, when the emir of Algiers requested his help in expelling Spanish soldiers from the neighboring Peñón of Algiers, a small island fortress. Not a man to miss an opportunity, Oruç established his rule in the city of Algiers, disposing of the emir, who was apparently drowned while having his daily bath. Oruç then had himself proclaimed sultan, to the joy of his brother and a growing army of supporters. Oruç swiftly moved on to capture the Algerian cities of Ténès and Tlemcen, creating for himself a powerful North African kingdom that threatened and defied the authority of King Charles, just a short sail away in Spain. The Spanish reaction was not slow in coming. In 1518 a fleet set out from the Spanish-controlled port of Oran and soldiers stormed Tlemcen. Oruç fled, only to be found hiding in a goat pen, where a Spanish soldier first lanced him and then beheaded him. Rise of Barbarossa In Algiers Barbarossa took over as leader. In the face of renewed Spanish pressure Barbarossa showed his political cunning and sought help from Süleyman the Magnificent, the Islamic sultan of the vast Ottoman Empire centered in Constantinople (present-day Istanbul, Turkey). Süleyman sent him 2,000 janissaries, the elite of the Ottoman army. In exchange, Algiers became a new Ottoman sanjak, or district, which allowed Barbarossa to carry on his piracy while conquering additional strongholds. Nevertheless, the main threat remained right on his doorstep: the Spanish still occupied the Peñón of Algiers. In 1529 he bombarded the garrison into surrender before beating its commander to death. In 1534 Barbarossa launched an attack on Fondi, near Naples. His goal: to capture Giulia Gonzaga, a young widow of legendary beauty and carry her off to Süleyman’s harem. A traitor led 2,000 Turks to Giulia’s home, from which, according to legend, she’d only just escaped, riding through the night on horseback. Barbarossa’s fame spread throughout the Muslim world. Experienced corsairs, such as Sinan the Jew and Ali Caraman, came to Algiers, drawn by the prospects of making their fortunes. But Barbarossa fought for politics as well as piracy. When Charles V’s great Genovese admiral Andrea Doria captured ports in Ottoman Greece, Süleyman summoned Barbarossa, who quickly answered the call. To impress the sultan, he loaded his ships with luxurious gifts: tigers, lions, camels, silk, cloth of gold, silver, and gold cups, and 200 enslaved women for the harem in Istanbul. Süleyman was delighted and made Barbarossa admiral in chief of the Ottoman fleet. Barbarossa now commanded over a hundred galleys and galliots, or half galleys, and started a strong naval campaign all around the Mediterranean. After reconquering the Greek ports, Barbarossa’s fleet terrorized the Italian coast. Near Naples, Barbarossa and his men attempted to capture the beautiful Countess Giulia Gonzaga, who only narrowly escaped. Barbarossa even threatened Rome, where a dying Pope Clement VII was abandoned by his cardinals, who fled after plundering the papal treasury. However, these raids were just part of a bigger strategy, a diversion to distract from Barbarossa’s true goal, Tunis. It worked; he took the port by surprise in 1534. A model of a Maltese design typical of the 16th century, the last great era of the war galley in the Mediterranean Sea. Barbarossa’s revenge However, Barbarossa’s success was brief. The following year Charles V sent a mighty military expedition that managed to recapture Tunis after a week-long siege punctuated with bloody battles. Back in Algiers, Barbarossa was undaunted and out for revenge. He sailed to the western Mediterranean, and on approaching the Spanish island of Minorca his ships hoisted flags captured from Spain’s fleet the year before. The ruse allowed him to enter the port unmolested. When the meager garrison realized the deception, they attempted a defense, but surrendered a few days later on the promise that lives and property would be spared. Barbarossa broke this promise and sacked the city anyway, taking hundreds of people to sell into slavery. Barbarossa's fleet at the allied French port of Toulon in 1543. This contemporary miniature was painted by the famed artist Matrakçi Nasuh. During the next few years Barbarossa, now commanding 150 ships, raided all along the Christian coastline of the Mediterranean. In 1538, cornered in the Ottoman port of Preveza, Greece, he defeated a stronger fleet commanded by Andrea Doria. In 1541 he also repelled the great expedition Charles V personally led against Algiers. A Muslim hero Barbarossa headed from Italy to the French ports of Marseille and Toulon. He was welcomed with every honour, as France and the Ottoman Empire had formed an alliance, united by their rivalry with Charles V. From France, some of Barbarossa’s ships sailed along the Spanish coast sacking towns and cities. In 1545 Barbarossa finally retired to Istanbul, where he spent the last year of his life, peacefully dictating his memoirs. He died on July 4, 1546, and was buried in Istanbul in the Barbaros Türbesi, the mausoleum of Barbarossa. The tomb was built by the celebrated Mimar Sinan. It still stands in the modern district of Besiktas, on the European bank of the Bosporus. For many years no Turkish ship left Istanbul without making an honorary salute to the grave of the country’s most feared sailor, whose epitaph reads: “[This is the tomb] of the conqueror of Algiers and of Tunis, the fervent Islam soldier of God, the Capudan Khair-ed-Deen [Barbarossa,] upon whom may the protection of God repose.” Source: Wikipedia - Barbary Pirates | History and Civilization - Dreaded Pirate Barbarosssa
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    Fact of the Day - HOPE CHEST Renaissance hope chest (cassone) from Florence (15th century) Did you know.... that a hope chest, also called dowry chest, cedar chest, trousseau chest or glory box is a piece of furniture traditionally used to collect items such as clothing and household linen, by unmarried young women in anticipation of married life. The term "hope chest" or "cedar chest" is used in the midwest or south of the United States; in the United Kingdom, the term is "bottom drawer"; while both terms, and "glory box" are used by women in Australia. (Wikipedia) Unveiling the History Behind the Tradition of Hope Chests Think of hope chests and the popular models made by Lane Co. comes to mind. But, the fact is, this tradition is actually several centuries old. by Historyplex Did You Know? The Lane Co. was once the largest manufacturer of hope chests in the US, having produced 12 million chests between 1912 and 1987. Hope chests are an ancient tradition to prepare a girl for her future as a wife. These wooden chests are also known by other names, like glory boxes, dowry chests, trousseau, and cedar chests, though they got their most popular name because of the ‘hope’ that they provided to unmarried girls for a good future. The contents of a traditional hope chest included handicraft linen, bed-covers, blankets, towels, essential items like oil lamps, dishes, and candlesticks, and even dresses for special occasions. While their conventional structure is a wooden box with a hinged lid, some models also had drawers to maximize their storing capacity. Let’s check out the history behind the glorious hope chest tradition. Amish Rustic Log Hope Chest Origins The ancient Egyptians, during the age of the pharaohs, were the first ones to use cedar chests for storing precious jewels, and even papyrus scrolls (primitive paper), to prevent them from getting moist. These chests were carved from a single block of wood, and lasted for hundreds of years. Egyptian Hope Chest In Medieval Europe, it was considered the duty of a suitor to provide land, and material comforts to his would-be wife. In return, the bride’s family provided their daughter with items of daily necessity, including expensive stuff like dishes, silverware, and furniture, along with animals, as dowry. Poorer families who couldn’t afford such an expensive dowry, instead taught their daughters skills like knitting, sewing, crocheting, and embroidery, since an early age. The father usually built her a wooden chest, and spent hours decorating it with artwork and wooden mosaics. Using her handcrafting skills, an ordinary girl was able to stock this chest with linen, blankets, napkins, towels, and other textile items which she had made herself, or received as a gift from her parents, friends, or relatives. These handcrafted items were regarded as proof of a girl’s skillful and industrious nature; qualities which would get her a good husband. Medieval Hope Chest The idea behind these wooden chests was to provide the newly-married couple with the basic necessities for their daily life. An industrious wife was considered as an asset, and this chest also helped girls pick up essential skills like sewing and embroidery at an early age, which were required later in life. Renaissance Era Hope chests reached their peak of popularity during the Renaissance in Europe. This period saw the rise of different styles of chests in various kingdoms. A popular style of hope chest was the Italian ‘Cassone’, which was ornately decorated to advertise the status of a girl’s family to potential suitors. It was usually stocked with valuables like dishes, linen, and clothing gifted by the bride’s family, and later even those items gifted by the groom’s family was kept in it. This chest was kept hidden in a secure place to prevent it being stolen by invading enemies. Italian Cassone During the same time in Germany, it was customary for a man wooing a girl to gift her a wooden chest, called a ‘Minnekästchen’, which bore designs depicting his interest in her. These chests were used for storing gifts, such as jewelry and notes from the suitor. German Minnekästchen European Settlement in America The hope chest reached the Americas with the large-scale emigration of Europeans from kingdoms such as Great Britain, Scandinavia, and Germany, beginning in the 18th century. This journey across the oceans was long and tedious, and many families packed all their belongings in a single wooden chest. These chests were later used to store blankets and clothing, as a bench since chairs were a luxury in those times, and at times even as a bed. By the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, hope chests had become a common tradition among low and middle-class girls too in the United States. Most of the production of hope chests was centered around the region of New England. Recent History The tradition of hope chests began to decline in the US after the early 20th century. The First World War changed all that. When World War I began in 1914, Virginia-based Lane Furniture Company received a profitable contract from the government to manufacture pine chests to store military ammunition. Immediately after the war, the company diversified its operations to produce cedar boxes for domestic use, which had a reviving effect on the custom of hope chests. Later, during the 1930s, the company began offering free, miniature hope chests to girls graduating out of high school, hoping that they would buy the larger versions which were much costlier. Lane graduation box During the Second World War, the company tried to attract American GIs, saying that hope chests were the perfect gift for the time they spent away from their wives or girlfriends. Thus, in a few decades, Lane Co. had rewritten the entire history of hope chests in the United States. Despite its illustrious past, this tradition waned after the Second World War. This era saw the rise of feminism, as, for the first time, women had stepped out into the workforce during the war to fill in the void created by men leaving to fight on foreign shores. While most hope chests in modern homes are family heirlooms relegated to storing old blankets, this tradition is seeing a gradual revival by supporters of healthy Christian traditions. Source: Wikipedia - Hope Chest | History Behind Traditions of Hope Chests
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    What's the Word? - NUMISMATIC pronunciation: [noo-məz-MAD-ik] Part of speech: adjective Origin: French, late 18th century Meaning: 1. Relating to or consisting of coins, paper currency, and medals. Example: "Mei’s extensive numismatic collection included several rare forms of Chinese currency." "The numismatic exhibit features coins from around the world." About Numismatic Numismatic has roots in French, Latin, and Greek. The French word “numismatique” developed via Latin from the Greek word “nomisma.” “Nomisma” in turn developed from the words “nomismat” (current coin) and nomizein (to use). Did You Know? Numismatic enthusiasts might be disappointed to learn that Olympians don’t go for the gold...more like the mostly silver. The original Olympic gold medals were created out of 92% silver and a required 6 grams of gold — a tradition that continues into the modern day, with present gold medals being solid silver with gold plating.
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    Fact of the Day - FOOD SECURITY A woman selling produce at a market in Lilongwe, Malawi. Did you know..... that food security is a measure of the availability of food and individuals' ability to access it. According the United Nations’ Committee on World Food Security, food security is defined as the means that all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their food preferences and dietary needs for an active and healthy life. The availability of food irrespective of class, gender or region is another one. There is evidence of food security being a concern many thousands of years ago, with central authorities in ancient China and ancient Egypt being known to release food from storage in times of famine. At the 1974 World Food Conference the term "food security" was defined with an emphasis on supply; food security is defined as the "availability at all times of adequate, nourishing, diverse, balanced and moderate world food supplies of basic foodstuffs to sustain a steady expansion of food consumption and to offset fluctuations in production and prices". Later definitions added demand and access issues to the definition. The final report of the 1996 World Food Summit states that food security "exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life." (Wikipedia) THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT FOOD SECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE by Aly Mashek | Shared in Blog, Empowering Communities | September 19, 2016 World Food Day is just around the corner: October 16, 2016 will be a global day of action against hunger. This year’s World Food Day theme, “Climate is changing. Food and agriculture must too,” draws focus to the effects of climate change on global food security. As the world endures changes in temperature and precipitation, the projected state of global food security is concerning. According to the World Food Programme, food producers will need intensive labor support, including technological improvements, to avoid massive crop loss or even complete unavailability of cultivation. Key regions in Africa, China, the United States Great Plains and others are projected to experience extreme climate changes that will minimize the accessibility of food to distributors around the world. Here are ten important things to know about the state of global food security and climate change: The agricultural productivity losses due to increased temperature are estimated to induce hunger and malnutrition rates up 20 percent by 2050. (Source: World Food Programme) Over one-third of food produced worldwide is wasted. That amounts to about 1.3 billion tons per year. (Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) Climate change is making climate disasters, such as floods and droughts, more frequent and intense, land and water more scarce and difficult to access, and increases in agricultural productivity even harder to achieve. (Source: World Food Programme) According to the IPCC, crop yield declines of 10-25 percent may be prevalent by 2050 because of climate change. (Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States) As a result of climate change, two-thirds of the arable land in Africa could be lost by 2025. (Source: World Food Programme) By 2030, climate change could push food prices up by 50-90 percent more than they would otherwise be expected to rise. (Source: World Food Programme) Climate change puts millions of people’s lives at risk, and traps poor households in food insecurity and poverty. Climate shocks disproportionately affect the most vulnerable people at risk of hunger, especially women and children. The vast majority of the world’s hungry people live in fragile environments prone to climate hazards with which they cannot cope. When climate disasters strike, the situation of already vulnerable people can quickly deteriorate into a food and nutrition crisis. (Source: World Food Programme) By 2050, we can expect 24 million more malnourished children as a result of climate change. Almost half of this increase, 10 million children, will be in sub-Saharan Africa. (Source: World Food Programme) Hotter temperatures from climate change are expected to reduce catches of the world’s main fish species by 40 percent. (Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States) Agricultural production must rise by about 60% by 2050 in order to feed a larger population. Climate change is putting this objective at risk (Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States) Source: Wikipedia - Food Security | Food Security Facts
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    What's the Word? - GRUNTLED pronunciation: [GRUHNT-ld] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Unknown, 1930s Meaning: 1. (Humorous) Pleased, satisfied, and contented. Example: "Despite Tom Sawyer continually annoying those around him, he always managed to keep his guardians gruntled." "Mr. Robinson was appropriately gruntled after several cookies." About Gruntled It is thought that “gruntled” developed from a 1930s back-formation (when a word is formed from an existing word) of the word “disgruntled” (to be angry or dissatisfied). Did You Know? While it can sometimes be hard to be satisfied with a decision as an indecisive person, psychologists have some suggestions for feeling gruntled. Justifying your decision and focusing on not changing your mind about a particular choice you’ve just made help you practice sticking by your decisions — and may just help you feel content about the choices you’ve made.
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    What's the Word? - HYALINE pronunciation: [HI-ə-line] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Latin, mid 17th century Meaning: 1. (Zoology) Having a glassy, translucent appearance. 2. (Literary) A thing that is clear and translucent like glass, especially a smooth sea or a clear sky. Example: "Thanks to the glass frog’s hyaline skin, we could easily see its organs at work." "The airplane dipped, spun, and soared through the hyaline." About Hyaline Hyaline developed from the Latin words “hyalinus” and “hyalin,” which come from the Greek words “hualinos” or “hualos” (glass). Did You Know? Jellyfish, possibly one of the world’s most recognizably hyaline organisms, are not fish. Instead, they are very simple invertebrates that are not only 95% water, but lack internal organs beyond a “nerve net” nervous system. These attributes help give jellyfish their ethereal, translucent appearance.
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    Fact of the Day - EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS The Pyramid of Sahure at Abusir, viewed from the pyramid's causeway Did you know... that The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt. As of November 2008, sources cite either 118 or 138 as the number of identified Egyptian pyramids. Most were built as tombs for the country's pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods. (Wikipedia) Fascinating Facts about the Egyptian Pyramids by Saugat Adhikari | Last updated: April 9, 2019 When archaeologists started looking for fragments of previous civilizations they discovered many pyramids in China and other places. The pyramids in China were recently built and had no historical significance but the pyramids of Egypt were fascinating, very old and much historical value could be extracted from them. These pyramids had been built with care and thought, and to demolish these structures without the help of machines would take years. Some of the pyramids in Egypt are still standing tall with little deterioration in their basic structure and to see such geometrically sound constructions built only with the materials to hand at the time and without any knowledge of modern building techniques is of crucial historical significance. Some facts about the Egyptian pyramids are listed below: Egyptian pyramids were built to preserve tombs In ancient Egypt, tombs were only built for pharaohs and not the general population, but because the Egyptian dynasties lasted for such a long period there are quite a few tombs still in existence today. The pharaohs’ tombs were meant to preserve their bodies and souls. The Egyptians had a very strong belief in the afterlife and thought the dead would continue to live as they had on earth. This can be seen in the tradition of making offerings to the dead, including food, to help them to flourish in the afterlife. As the number of tombs increased, people felt the need to protect them, and this is how the concept of pyramids came about. Pyramids were mainly for the tombs of the pharaohs, and other, less significant people had smaller kinds of pyramids called monas, way below the main pyramids to show their position in relation to their kings. When the Egyptian pharaohs took over their thrones, they immediately ordered a new pyramid to be built. There is a long-held belief that the construction authorities forced the pharaohs’ servants to build the pyramids but this is not true. Workers willingly volunteered to build the pyramids and were paid on a daily basis. They were also given complimentary food to keep them healthy and strong in order to keep building the pyramids as the stones were heavy and they had little technology to help them. It is almost impossible to believe that humans did all the work manually, and research is still being carried out into what tools the Egyptians of that era used to attain such precision in measurement and alignment. The pyramids faced exactly due north Most of the pyramids that were made were built on the west bank of the river Nile, the only river that flowed through Egypt. It was also considered the national highway at that time as people felt that waterways were the best way to transport goods. They also used to believe that their sun god would travel with them on the water in his own solar boat. The buildings were made of limestone, and the outer layer was polished to a high sheen. The reflective nature of this surface helped to deflect the sunlight and keep the mummies preserved. The position of the setting sun was thought to be where the kingdom of the dead was and so the pyramids were located where the sun set and not where it rose. Another observation that was made about the pyramids was that they all pointed to the north, and the pole star was precisely above the pyramid. Another fascinating fact is that the positioning of the pyramids resembled constellations, and it remains a mystery how the Egyptians were able to be so precise without any advanced knowledge in this field. The Great Pyramid of Giza What we now call the Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and the greatest pyramid of the three pyramids found there. This pyramid is one of the seven wonders of the world. It was built for Pharaoh Khufu of the eighth dynasty and constructed between 2580 and 2560 BC. It contains chambers specially made for the king and queen, the Robbers’ Tunnel, a modern opening gate, the Grand Gallery, and a huge void deep inside the pyramid. Approximately 2.3 billion rocks were used to make this pyramid, but its precise dimensions are difficult to work out as they are in Egyptian units. There are not many other pyramids that are as intriguing as the Giza pyramid making it a favorite tourist destination. Most of the government’s revenue from tourism is due to the popularity of this pyramid. The jewel A lot of thought went into the pyramids’ construction, showing the deep love and respect the people had for their pharaohs and for the dead in general. The pyramids were made of local limestone that was available in abundance in Egypt, and the outsides were highly polished. These stones used to sparkle in the sunlight, making the pyramid shine like a huge jewel. They could be seen from the mountains of Israel, and some people speculate that they could have been seen from the moon as well. The other special feature about these pyramids was that although the sun was very hot outside, the temperature inside the pyramid remained constant at 20 degrees Celsius, acting as a giant air-conditioning unit. The doors of the pyramids weighed up to 20 tonnes The doors of the pyramids were very heavy. The Egyptians alone may have known how to open these great doors. In fact, the doors were so heavy that they were almost unidentifiable as doors as they did not open easily at all. Their opening mechanism was only discovered when the Great Pyramid was being studied by scientists who realized that they were huge swivel doors. The door had the strange feature of being very easy to open with just one hand from the inside but almost impossible to open from the outside. How the Egyptians were able to balance these 20-tonne doors in order to create this effect remains a mystery. The pyramids contained tunnels and mysterious boxes Tunnels were discovered beneath the Giza pyramids and this shows that the Egyptians had mastered this building technology way before we rediscovered it. As well as tunnels, boxes that were cut with great precision were also found. Each of these boxes weighed as much as 100 tonnes. Many believed that they were meant for burying bulls but no evidence of bulls inside the pyramids has ever been found so this theory cannot been proved. The stones were heavier than elephants The stones that were used to build the pyramids were almost 10 tonnes each – heavier than an elephant, in other words. How they were able to lift these stones up to the height of the pyramids remains a mystery and is still being researched by scientists. The pyramids rose to about 203 steps and each of the stones have been placed with astonishing precision and still stand strong today. It took 200 years to build a pyramid A lot of time and effort was required to build these beautiful pyramids, each one averaging about two centuries. About 138 pyramids were built in ancient Egypt and their beauty lies not only in their construction but also in the phenomenal amount of thought that went into their positioning in relation to the stars. Every pyramid had been robbed of its treasure by 1000 BC The Egyptians believed that their pharaohs should be buried along with their treasure and sometimes even their slaves. Hence gold, jewelry, clothes etc were put in the tombs with the mummies. However, over the years, rulers of other kingdoms have destroyed the pyramids and taken these jewels and valuables back to their own respective kingdoms. Although the pyramids are very hard to damage, smaller pyramids were targeted, and their riches plundered. One such example of this can be seen in the Great Pyramid of Giza. There is evidence of a failed break-in and the deep hole that was made in the pyramid’s structure is still visible today. The construction of these pyramids is just so incredible that much research has gone into how to make equivalently strong structures today. The mortar used is still unknown, and scientists have not even been able to determine where the mortar came from. It is astonishing that the ancient Egyptians could create buildings with such precision, and this careful, intelligent level of construction can be seen in other monuments in Egypt as well, not just the pyramids. Without the help of machinery, and even before the invention of the wheel, they achieved as much as modern man is able to today. It is also possible to see progression in their building techniques when you compare the earlier pyramids to the later models, such as in the fine polishing of the exteriors. Source: Wikipedia - Egyptian Pyramids | Facts About Egyptian Pyramids
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    What's the Word? - CONFRERE pronunciation: [KAN-frehr] Part of speech: noun Origin: French, mid 18th century Meaning: 1. A fellow member of a profession; a colleague Example: "Since I don’t know the answer to that question, I’ll refer you to my confrere." "The meetup was the perfect opportunity for Reyna to meet confreres in her field." About Confrere This noun was introduced into French via the medieval Latin word “confrater,” a combination of the words “con” (together with) and “frater” (brother). Did You Know? Taking time to rub shoulders with your confreres is important not just for the sake of making friends — a recent study found that around 80% of jobs are gained through networking. Building connections can be a vital way to transition into a new career.
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    What's the Word? - VOLUTE pronunciation: [vəl-YOOT] Part of speech: noun Origin: French, mid 16th century Meaning: 1. A spiral scroll characteristic of Ionic capitals and also used in Corinthian and composite capitals. 2. Forming a spiral curve or curves. Example: "Many Greek buildings are easily recognizable by the volute on the top of columns." "Both sea and land snails often have similarly volute shells." About Volute While volute developed in French, it originated from the Latin words “voluta” and “volvere” (which mean “to roll”). Did You Know? The decorative spiral scrolls recognizable on Ionic and Corinthian Greek buildings are known as volutes. For United States citizens, these might be closer than one would expect. Many state capitol buildings employ this design, including the U.S. Capitol Building in Washington, D.C.
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    What's the Word? - ESCULENT pronunciation: [ES-kyəl-ənt] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Latin, 17th century Meaning: 1. Fit to be eaten; edible. 2. A thing, especially a vegetable, which is fit to be eaten. Example: "The puppy sniffed the food to determine whether it was esculent." "The community garden grew eggplants, stringbeans, and an assortment of other esculents." About Esculent Esculent developed from the Latin word “esculentus,” which is derived from the words “esca” (food) and “esse” (eat). Did You Know? If you’re interested in finding your own food in the forests and wild places near your home, it may be time to join a foraging group. Foraging groups meet everywhere from local neighborhood parks to Central Park, and focus on finding esculent berries, mushrooms, and plant life.
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    Patch 1.1.1 Release Notes A Hotfix for Audio and Button Prompts While it is great to hear that yesterday's 1.1 patch improved the game experience for a lot of people, it also introduced an audio regression for some. Also, the feature to disable dynamic button prompts was not fully working as expected. This version 1.1.1 hotfix should resolve these issues. Here is a list of changes since 1.1: Rewrite audio backend processing to eliminate artifacts and further improve performance. Fix the "disable dynamic button prompt" feature not actually solving the performance issues it was designed to solve. Note: If you still see intermittent stuttering issues on systems with generally good performance, they might be shader cache related. Please look here for instructions on how to resolve them. While we expect this patch to improve the situations for all users, with the great variety of hardware and software configurations available on PC this is not always guaranteed in all circumstances (as we saw with 1.1). As such, you can return to the release version of the game by selecting the public "version_102" branch in Steam, and to 1.1 by selecting the "version_110" branch.
  46. 1 point
    What's the Word? - WINKLE pronunciation: [WINK-əl] Part of speech: verb Origin: British, late 16th century Meaning: 1. Extract or obtain something with difficulty. 2. (Noun) A small herbivorous shore-dwelling mollusk with a spiral shell. Example: "The interrogator was used to winkling confessions out of the most hard boiled subjects." "The dock and side of the boat was freckled with winkles and barnacles." About Winkle This word originated from a shortening of the word “periwinkle” — a mollusk with a spiral shell usually found along shores and beaches. Did You Know? Ever considered singing “Winkle, winkle, little star”? Winkle’s other less-known meaning as a verb is something that “gleams or glows,” which means the substitution would work, as odd as it might sound!
  47. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - MOUNT RUSHMORE Did you know.... that Mount Rushmore National Memorial is centered on a colossal sculpture carved into the granite face of Mount Rushmore (Lakota Tȟuŋkášila Šákpe, or Six Grandfathers) in the Black Hills in Keystone, South Dakota. Sculptor Gutzon Borglum created the sculpture's design and oversaw the project's execution from 1927 to 1941 with the help of his son, Lincoln Borglum. The sculpture features the 60-foot (18 m) heads of Presidents George Washington (1732–1799), Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919) and Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865), as recommended by Borglum. The four presidents were chosen to represent the nation's birth, growth, development and preservation, respectively.[6] The memorial park covers 1,278 acres (2.00 sq mi; 5.17 km2) and the actual mountain has an elevation of 5,725 feet (1,745 m) above sea level. (Wikipedia) Facts About Mount Rushmore BY MARK MANCINI | JULY 13, 2020 Today, the faces of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt gaze over South Dakota’s Black Hills, their images sculpted on the granite slopes of Mount Rushmore. An engineering marvel, this unlikely landmark now draws millions of visitors every year. But the place casts a dark shadow. Built by a Ku Klux Klan sympathizer on land seized from the Sioux during a gold rush, Mount Rushmore is steeped in controversy. Here are 11 little-known facts about its creation and history. 1. THE LAKOTA OF THE GREAT SIOUX NATION CALL THIS MOUNTAIN TȞUŊKÁŠILA ŠÁKPE, OR “SIX GRANDFATHERS.” 1905 photo of the Six Grandfathers, before construction began on the Mount Rushmore National Memorial. When New York attorney Charles E. Rushmore first laid eyes on the landform in 1884, the presidential sculpting effort was decades away. Reportedly, the visiting lawyer asked his guides if the mountain had a name. Unaware of its importance to the Sioux, they said no—and then one of them added, “We will name it now, and name it Rushmore Peak.” Over time, this evolved into “Mount Rushmore.” 2. MOUNT RUSHMORE’S HEAD SCULPTOR, GUTZON BORGLUM, PREVIOUSLY WORKED ON A HUGE CONFEDERATE MONUMENT. Georgia’s Stone Mountain bears a 158-by-76-foot carving of Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, and their horses. Borglum came up with the basic concept after the Daughters of the Confederacy asked him to sculpt Lee’s head into the rockface. But on February 25, 1925, 10 years into the project, Borglum was fired after disputes with the organization. Stone Mountain was finished without his involvement; then-Vice President Spiro Agnew attended its dedication ceremony in 1970. 3. THE IDEA FOR MOUNT RUSHMORE BEGAN WITH SOUTH DAKOTA'S HISTORIAN. Borglum's model of Mount Rushmore. Intrigued by Stone Mountain, Jonah LeRoy “Doane” Robinson, South Dakota’s official State Historian, contacted Borglum in 1924. The Black Hills were already a tourist destination, but Robinson wanted an audacious new draw. Turning some local geologic features into a lineup of statues depicting western legends like Buffalo Bill Cody, Sacagawea, Red Cloud, Meriwether Lewis, and William Clark sounded like a good business move to Robinson. But Borglum had other ideas. In addition to changing the monument's proposed location—he opted for Mount Rushmore instead of the nearby granite spires Robinson had chosen—he also changed the people depicted. Feeling the place should be a “national monument commemorating America’s founders and builders,” the sculptor went with a presidential theme. 4. GUTZON BORGLUN LIKED MOUNT RUSHMORE BECAUSE OF ITS PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES. South Dakota is full of mountains, so why was the monument built on this one? For starters, Borglum realized it was sturdy enough to withstand the rigorous sculpting process. He also liked the fact that Mount Rushmore’s southeastern flank (where the faces now stand) gets good sun exposure. The mountain's fine-grained Harvey Peak granite also influenced Borglun's choice: Though the material was more difficult to carve, it would erode slower than the granite found on other nearby peaks. 5. CONSTRUCTION ON MOUNT RUSHMORE BEGAN IN 1927. It officially ended on October 31, 1941. Borglum unexpectedly died that March, leaving his son, Lincoln, to oversee the last few months of production. 6. ELEANOR ROOSEVELT WANTED SUSAN B. ANTHONY ON MOUNT RUSHMORE. Washington’s head was the first part of the monument to be dedicated, followed by Jefferson’s, Lincoln’s, and finally Roosevelt’s. Meanwhile, a different Roosevelt wanted Susan B. Anthony to join their ranks. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt wrote to Borglum in 1936, asking him to include the prominent suffragist’s likeness. A bill reiterating this plea was introduced to Congress the following year, but it didn’t get far due to funding restrictions. 7. THE CONSTRUCTION CREW USED A TECHNIQUE CALLED “HONEYCOMBING” TO CARVE MOUNT RUSHMORE. In addition to sculpting these four heads, the workers also carved out a secret room behind the monument. Dynamite cleared away 90 percent of the unwanted rock, but some tasks were ill-suited for explosives. Once they came within 3 to 6 inches of the desired depth, Borglum’s workers would drill shallow holes in tightly packed rows. Known as “honeycombing,” this trick allowed them to pull off chunks of granite with their bare hands. 8. MOUNT RUSHMORE ONCE HAD ITS OWN BASEBALL TEAM. While at Rushmore, Borglum and his son organized a baseball team made up entirely of their day-laborers. In 1939, the “Rushmore Drillers” had a great summer, qualifying for the semifinals in South Dakota’s Amateur Baseball Tournament. 9. MOUNT RUSHMORE IS JUST TWO COUNTIES AWAY FROM THE U.S.’S GEOGRAPHIC CENTER. Alaska and Hawaii became states in 1959, shifting the geographic center of the U.S. from Smith County, Kansas, to Butte County, South Dakota. The exact spot is located on private land, but roughly 20 miles to the south—in the nearby city of Belle Fourche, South Dakota—there’s a compass-shaped monument honoring America’s midpoint. By car, that attraction’s only 79.4 miles from Mount Rushmore, the most iconic spot in Pennington County. 10. THE LAST SURVIVING MOUNT RUSHMORE CARVER DIED IN 2019. A prominent member of those Rushmore Drillers, Donald “Nick” Clifford was a right-fielder and the youngest carver ever to work on the monument. He was hired in 1938 at the tender age of 17. Clifford outlived all of his Mount Rushmore co-workers and died in 2019 at 98 years old. 11. NATIVE AMERICANS ACTIVISTS OCCUPIED MOUNT RUSHMORE IN 1970. The 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie set aside South Dakota’s Black Hills, Mount Rushmore included, for the exclusive use of indigenous people. Yet the United States hastily redrew the agreed-upon boundaries when General George A. Custer found gold in the region six years later. In 1980, the Supreme Court ruled the U.S. government had acted illegally. As per the ruling, a compensation trust now worth over $1 billion was set aside for the Sioux. That money has never been collected. Ten years before that Supreme Court decision, a group of 23 Native American activists climbed Mount Rushmore on August 29, 1970. Demanding that the land be restored to the Sioux, the group defied federal regulations and set up camp atop the mountain. Protestors remained at the site until that November, when bad weather finally drove them out. According to Lehman Brightman, the former President of the United Native Americans organization and one of the event’s architects, it was “the first Sioux Indian uprising” since Custer’s lifetime. Source: Wikipedia - Mount Rushmore | Mount Rushmore Facts
  48. 1 point
    https://www.epicgames.com/store/en-US/p/3-out-of-10-season-2 3 out of 10: Season Two is currently free on Epic Games Store. https://www.minecraft.net/en-us/pdp?id=8a25fd47-c800-45b1-b4cf-349d875fdf0d Minecraft Spring Friends Skin Pack is currently free on the MInecraft marketplace for PC, consoles and mobile devices. https://freebies.indiegala.com/theatre-of-war-3-korea Theatre of War 3: Korea is currently free on IndieGala.
  49. 1 point
    Since I haven't seen a post in a bit, here's some indiegala freebs Stranded in Time World's Dawn
  50. 1 point
    https://freebies.indiegala.com/packed-train Packed Train is currently free on IndieGala.
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