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  1. 4 points
    Go to the Settings tab, scroll down to Advanced Settings. Then use the Search to find and disable (uncheck) the options which appear: premium alert Special Deals oboom Donate Banner Then simply exit JDownloader and re-open it. Voila!
  2. 3 points
    Today Square Enix revealed Final Fantasy XVI, the newest entry in the Final Fantasy series, is coming to the PlayStation 5 (PS5) system. Final Fantasy XVI is an all-new standalone single player action RPG produced by Naoki Yoshida (Final Fantasy XIV, Dragon Quest X) and directed by Hiroshi Takai (Final Fantasy XIV, The Last Remnant). No release date though, however Square Enix did state that their next big information reveal is scheduled for 2021.
  3. 3 points
    Fall Anime 2020 AniChart | MAL Chart | AniDB Chart My Personal Autumn Watch List is currently as follows: Left-Overs: Fire Force Season 02 Definite Pick-ups: Golden Kamuy Season 03 Is It Wrong To Try To Pick Up Girls In A Dungeon? Season 03 Yashahime: Princess Half-Demon Possible Pick-ups (Pending Impressions on further PVs and/or first couple episodes): Akudama Drive Dragon Quest: The Adventure of Dai Higurashi: When They Cry (2020) Jujutsu Kaisen Kuma Kuma Kuma Bear MWZ Nobelesse Our Last Crusade or the Rise of a New World The Day I Became a God The Journey of Elaina Movies BEM: Become Human Burn The Witch Demon Slayer: Infinity Train Fate/Grand Order: Camelot 1 - Wandering; Agateram Josee, the Tiger and the Fish You are Beyond OVAs Eden
  4. 2 points
    Legend: Start Final Fantasy XVI Spiderman Miles Morales Hogwarts Legacy Call Of Duty Black Ops Cold War Resident Evil VIII (8): Village Death Loop Devil May Cry 5 Special Edition Oddworld Soul Storm Five Nights At Freddy's Security Breach Demon's Souls Fortnite PlayStation Plus Price Global Launch God of War 2: Ragnarok
  5. 2 points
    For everyone that got the Borderlands collection when it was free on Epic, now they are giving away dlc as well. https://www.epicgames.com/store/en-US/product/borderlands-2/commander-lilith
  6. 1 point
    According to Dusk Golem, Full Resident Evil: Infinite Darkness details are It's an episodic 3D CG animated television series. Netflix exclusive, but will release globally. A collaboration between Capcom, TMS Entertainment & Marza Animation Planet. Canon to the games, and covers the series history. The series is part of the 25th anniversary celebration of Resident Evil. Pays special attention to sound design - Recommend wearing headphones while watching. Stars Leon Kennedy and Claire Redfield, the events of the series set-off when Claire stumbles upon "something" late one night, and Leon helps "someone", setting things into motion. The series is described as "Horror-Action", with scenes of "Horror Suspense" and "Breath-taking Dynamic Action". Tease there may be other familiar faces as side roles.
  7. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - STREET ART Somewhere in Portugal. Did you know.... that street art is unofficial and independent visual art created in public locations for public visibility. Street art is associated with the terms "independent art", "post-graffiti", "neo-graffiti", and guerrilla art. (Wikipedia) Art or vandalism? Street Art’s controversial history has often centered on this touchstone debate. Long associated with gangs and crime, graffiti tipped into the realm of art during the 1970s and 1980s as artists including Jean-Michel Basquiat, Keith Haring, Fab Five Freddy and Blek le Rat revolutionized guerrilla tagging of the urban environment with their distinctive visions. Below are some facts about the origins of Street Art and its lasting importance today. Donuts Strawberry by Banksy Rooted in Romance Street Art in the contemporary sense is traced to 1960s Philadelphia when enamored teenager Daryl "Cornbread" McCray began tagging “Cornbread loves Cynthia” on buildings and walls throughout the city in an attempt to woo the object of his affection. As his fame as a vandal grew to disproportionate heights, McCray engaged in a number of increasingly public stunts, going so far as to tag the Jackson 5’s plane while they were on tour in the city. In a few short years, Cornbread single handedly reframed graffiti as a mode of individual expression rather than a marker of gang affiliation. Ben Eine at Work in London. Runaway Trains and Dizzying Heights During the early 1970s, graffiti art exploded across New York City with artists showcasing their daring by tagging both prominent intersections and inaccessible locations from water towers to bridges as well as the city’s many subway trains. Certain destinations became legendary. 5 Pointz, a cluster of factory buildings in Long Island City, Queens, became a well-known hotspot for graffiti murals until its demolition in 2013, while the lower Manhattan street corner of Houston Street and Bowery has been home to murals by giants of Street Art including Keith Haring, OsGêmeos, Swoon, JR and most recently Banksy, whose “Free Zehra Doğan” mural appeared at the location on 15 March. Blue underwater painted water tower In Rhythm Hip-hop culture and Street Art worlds emerged together and often overlapped with many artists crossing back and forth between the two. Artist Phase 2 perfected graffiti’s emblematic bubble lettering style in early 1970s while simultaneously rising to prominence in the South Bronx hip-hop scene. Fab Five Freddy similarly released hit songs while a member of the Brooklyn based graffiti crew the Fabulous 5 and also curating groundbreaking exhibitions of Basquiat, Haring and Rammellzee. Rammellzee: A Roll of Dice Art World Wingmen Though graffiti artists were included in exhibitions in Lower Manhattan as early as the 1970s, these artists gained increased acceptance into the art world throughout the 1980s in part due to their friendships with contemporary artists such as Andy Warhol and Kenny Scharf. Keith Haring, famous for his ‘radiant baby’ tag, had his first solo exhibition at Tony Shafrazi Gallery in 1982, and while already famed in art circles Basquiat gained widespread public acclaim through a series of collaborations with his close friend Warhol. Warhol and Basquiat Style Wars Emerging in a world before the Internet and Instagram, Street Art grew its audience the old fashioned way — through a series of rambunctious and gritty documentary films. The most significant among these was the 1983 Style Wars, directed by Tony Silver and produced with Henry Chalfant. Originally aired on PBS, the film absorbed the captivating spirit of young street artists attempting to express themselves in a city that considered them criminals and became the benchmark for the numerous Street Art documentaries that followed, including Banksy’s 2010 Exit Through the Gift Shop. Keith Haring Tagging a New York City Subway Wall. Activist Art Since World War II, when an American soldier’s tag “Kilroy was here” inadvertently became an anti-war emblem, Street Artists have often employed their unique public platform for progressive social campaigns. Keith Haring, who lost his life to AIDs at the age of 31 in 1990, promoted anti-drug messaging with his 1986 Harlem mural Crack Is Wack and was a leading voice in AIDS and safe-sex awareness. More recently in Shepard Fairey’s 2008 poster 'Hope' became the de-facto face of the Obama presidential campaign. Pioneering Woman Street Artist Swoon's Mural Dedicated to Those Affected by Hurricane Sandy, Intersection of Bowery and Houston, New York, 2013 Next Generation Over the decades, the reach of Street Art seems only to have grown with entire neighborhoods — Bushwick in Brooklyn, Shoreditch in London, Belleville in Paris — camouflaged by it. British-born Banksy, who was influenced by French street artist Blek le Rat, is now a household name, known as much for his distinctive imagery as for his closely guarded identity. As public attitudes, and even the laws, toward Street Art have become more accepting younger generations of street artists including Barry McGee, Brazilian twins OsGêmeos and Swoon have garnered institutional acclaim with museum exhibitions devoted to their work. Source: Wikipedia - Street Art | Things You Need to Know: Street Art
  8. 1 point
    What's the Word? - SCUTTLEBUTT pronunciation: [SKUH-dl-bət] Part of speech: noun Origin: North American English, early 19th century Meaning: 1. Rumor. 2. Gossip. Example: "Tell me everything! I need the scuttlebutt." "The scuttlebutt is that she's found a new job." About Scuttlebutt Sailors have the best words for things. On a 19th century ship, a "butt" was a cask of drinking water, and a "scuttle" was the hole made for drinking. The sailors would gather at the scuttlebutt for a bit of chit-chat. Now we have the term "scuttlebutt" for watercooler gossip. Did you Know? If you're in Australia, "furphy" is slang for a story too good to be true. It comes from the name of the manufacturer of water carts used to supply soldiers in World War I. Scuttlebutt or furphy, it's all just a bit of watercooler gossip.
  9. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - TETHER CAR A tether car with 1.5 cc engine. Did you know... that Tether Cars are model racing cars powered by miniature internal combustion engines and tethered to a central post. Unlike radio control cars, the driver has no remote control over the model's speed or steering. (Wikipedia) Tether cars were developed beginning in the 1920s–1930s and still are built, raced and collected today. First made by hobby craftsmen, tether cars were later produced in small numbers by commercial manufacturers such as Dooling Brothers (California), Dick McCoy (Duro-Matic Products), Garold Frymire (Fryco Engineering) BB Korn, and many others. Original examples of the early cars, made from 1930s to the 1960s, are avidly collected today and command prices in the thousands of dollars. Dooling brothers Mercury Midget rear drive, 1939-41 Building model cars has been a longtime hobby of car enthusiasts both young and old, but most model cars, whether built for display or to be raced, don't quite stack up to the sheer speed that tether car racing produces. Tether cars are built for maximum speed, which is why some people describe them as bullets on wheels, rather than cars. The world record for the top tether car speed is 214 miles per hour (344.4 kilometers per hour), well above the top speed of most model cars and perhaps more impressively, well above the top speed of most full-size cars [source: AMRCA]. Tether car racing is so named because each car races while tethered to a pole. The cars race individually on a circular track while attached to the center pole by a steel wire. Similar to rally car competition, the cars race individually and the winners of the tether car races are determined based on average speed of several laps. Once the cars get up to top speed, they can exert a force of about 91 Gs. That means the car is pulling away from the pole with a force about 91 times heavier than its own weight. Although tether cars reach extremely high speeds, the actual construction of the cars and time spent building them is the true focus of the hobby. Each car, called a racer, has many of the same components of a real car, but on a much smaller scale. The cars easily come apart so they can be worked on. Those who build and race the cars are called drivers and they constantly modify and tweak the cars to outperform others on the track. Each car receives many hours of preparation time and testing before a race. Tether car racing earns a certain unique cachet among other types of model car building, because of its long history and unique style of racing. History of Tether Cars Two pictures of Ed Baynes -- after the Nationals competition at Anderson, Ind., in 1956, and after the same event held in the same place 50 years later. Shortly after Charles Lindbergh became the first person to fly his airplane over the Atlantic Ocean, model airplanes and cars quickly became a hobby in the United States. In the late 1930s, hobbyists started adapting their model airplane engines for use in model cars. One such hobbyist, Tom Dooling and his brothers, often referred to collectively as the Dooling Brothers, receive much of the credit for starting the tether car sensation. After building and flying model airplanes, the brothers decided that they could build a car using an airplane engine. It worked, and the Dooling Brothers began building their own tether cars immediately. The first unofficial tether car races were held in an abandoned lot in Los Angeles, Calif., in 1937 [source: Macropoulos]. In 1939, they held their first official miniature car race in Fresno, Calif., and one year after that they had built a car that reached a top speed of about 64 miles per hour (103 kilometers per hour). The brothers began building tether car engines and racers to be sold to the public in the late 1930s and early 1940s. They created a famous car design called the Frog, and also a popular engine called the Dooling 61. The Dooling Frog During this time, tether car racing grew in popularity in the United States. By 1948, there were about 2,500 to 3,000 racers nationwide, with about 440 tracks throughout the country. However, during World War II, the demand for scrap metal contributions almost brought an end to the hobby. After the war, land development across the nation eliminated many of the tracks throughout the country. Mainly because the hobby can be very time consuming, people began to lose interest during the 1980s, and by 2008 there were only 150 members remaining in the American Miniature Racing Car Association, or AMRCA. Although membership in the states is low, the hobby is still popular in many European countries and Australia. The AMRCA holds races in the United States and other countries under the World Organization for Model Car Racing, or WMCR, association. In 2009, an Italian driver, Gaultier Picco, set a new world record of 214 miles per hour (344.4 kilometers per hour) with his racer in Sydney, Australia [source: AMRCA]. Achieving that speed takes a significant amount of off-track tinkering and engine modifications. Vintage tether cars. See pictures of classic toys. Tether Car Specifications On the outside, tether cars look a lot like the vehicles that break land-speed records. The cars are narrow and most of the engine parts are enclosed inside the body of the racer. They're comprised of parts similar to a full-size car, including a combustion engine, exhaust pipe, air intake, flywheel, gearbox, driveshaft and wheels. The racers also have a tailskid, located in the back that stabilizes the vehicles at top speeds. The cars are typically about one to two feet (30.5 to 61 centimeters) long, and weigh anywhere from two to six pounds (0.9 to 2.7 kilograms). In the international competitions, there are five different engine sizes that compete. The smallest is the 1.5 cubic centimeter (cc) engine, which has a top speed over 65 miles per hour (104.6 kilometers per hour). The other engine sizes are the 2.5cc, 3.5cc, 5cc and 10cc classes. The 10cc engine class cars are capable of producing speeds over 200 miles per hour (321.9 kilometers per hour). These two-cylinder engines typically run on a fuel mixture of 80 percent methanol and 20 percent castor oil and are capable of producing engine speeds up to 45,000 revolutions per minute. Drivers can spend hours modifying the cars to squeeze just a little more speed -- perhaps a half a mile per hour more -- out of the engines. In fact, making adjustments and changes to the engine are a huge part of the hobby. One of the main components contributing to the car's speed is the tuning pipe. The tuning pipe not only acts as the exhaust pipe, but it also helps to propel the car. The pipe's design sucks out any unspent fuel in the engine, shoots it to the back of the pipe where it becomes vaporized, and then forces part of it back into the engine. The vaporized fuel gives more power to the engine and helps it reach its top speed, but this effect only kicks in after the car reaches 100 miles per hour (160.9 kilometers per hour). With cars regularly achieving speeds well over 100 miles per hour (160.9 kilometers per hour), the tracks they race on have to be specially built to accommodate the tether cars and protect the people watching the races. Tether Car Races Ed Baynes readies a tether car for competition in the moment called "pushing off." The tether itself is faintly visible in the photo, attached to the frame of the car. We already know that the cars can achieve speeds faster than 200 miles per hour (321.9 kilometers per hour) and they pull with a force of up to 91 times their own weight, but how do these cars actually race on a track? Each car has a metal bar attached to the body called the panhandle. The panhandle attaches the car to the steel cable and post in the center of the circular track. Official WMCR racetracks are made of flat concrete and are built in two different sizes. The first size is a 70-foot (21.3-meter) diameter track that provides the cars with six laps for a total distance run of one-fourth of a mile (.4 kilometers). However, the WMRC rulebook states that new tracks should be built at 19.9 meters (65 feet, 3 and 1/2 inches) in diameter and allow 8 laps of running time, equaling 500 meters (.3 miles) total. Races are won by averaging the speed of eight laps compared to the averages of other drivers. The driver decides when his or her car is at its maximum speed, and then the laps are counted from that point forward. Drivers have three minutes to stop the race if they feel their car isn't performing correctly. Each driver is assisted by up to two helpers to start his or her vehicle. To start the car, the driver or a helper pushes it forward with a stick, turning on the fuel switch. Another helper, called the horser, holds the 33-foot (10.1-meter) long steel cable off of the ground until the car is going fast enough to hold the cable up by its own force, which usually occurs around 80 miles per hour (128.7 kilometers per hour). To stop the tether car, a broom is used to knock the fuel switch down, shutting off the fuel to the engine. In the United States, there are only three official tracks still in use. They're located in Whittier Narrows, Calif., Seaford, N.Y., and now there's a portable track located in northern California, too. Protective fences are built around each track due to the extreme top speeds and the tremendous force exerted on the car can cause parts of the vehicle to fly off or break during a race. Although there are only a handful of tether car members and racetracks across the United States, those involved in the sport are committed to this 70-year-old hobby. 210 mph Electric Powered Vector Tether Car Source: Wikipedia - Tether Car | How Tether Car Racing Works
  10. 1 point
    What's the Word? - BERGAMUT pronunciation: [BER-gə-mot] Part of speech: noun Origin: Italian, late 17th century Meaning: 1. An oily substance extracted from the rind of the fruit of a dwarf variety of the Seville orange tree. It is used in cosmetics and as flavoring in tea. 2. A dessert pear of a rich and sweet variety. Example: "The house tea blend has strong notes of bergamot." "We're serving poached bergamot for dessert." About Bergamut In Northern Italy there's a city and province called Bergamo. But there's also a Turkish word — "begarmudu" — that means "prince's pear." Between the orange extract and the pear, bergamot is likely a mix of these origins. Did you Know? So many versions of bergamot, so little time! A Seville orange tree produces the fruit from which bergamot is extracted for Earl Grey tea. Then there's also a variety of herb in the mint family called bergamot, and finally we have a type of pear called bergamot.
  11. 1 point
    https://store.steampowered.com/app/465760/Scrap_Garden/ Scrap Garden is currently free on Steam. https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.MDeeApp.dark_legend_of_war_1917 Dark Legend of War 1945 is currently free on Android. https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.waywaystudio.rowrow Row Row is currently free on Android.
  12. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - JACK-IN-THE-BOX Victorian Wooden Jack-In-The-Box Did you know.... that a jack-in-the-box is a children's toy that outwardly consists of a box with a crank. When the crank is turned, a music box mechanism in the toy plays a melody. After the crank has been turned a sufficient number of times (such as at the end of the melody), there is a "surprise": the lid pops open and a figure, usually a clown or jester, pops out of the box. Some jacks-in-the-box open at random times when cranked, making the startle even more effective. Many of those that use "Pop Goes the Weasel" open at the point in the melody when the word "pop" would be sung. In 2005, the jack-in-the-box was inducted into the American National Toy Hall of Fame, where are displayed all types of versions of the toy, starting from the beginning versions, and ending with the most recently manufactured versions. (Wikipedia) The Jack-in-the-Box has been one of the most enduring toys throughout the centuries. There are many stories and theories circulating about the origin of this classic toy. One is that it was popularized in the 15th and 16th centuries, based on the very popular “Punch” puppet featured in the “Punch and Judy” shows seen in public squares throughout England beginning in the Middle Ages. Early Jack-in-the Box toys resembled the jester Punch, with his white painted face. Another theory is that the name “Jack” was a reference to the devil, referred to as a “jack”. There is a legend in England about a medieval ecclesiastic who claimed to have captured the devil by trapping him a boot. This story may have contributed to the toy’s invention as well, as illustrations were made of him holding a boot with the devil’s head popping out of it. Of course, wind-up toys had been evolving since early Grecian days and there was a revival of this earlier technology with clockmakers beginning in the 13th century. The first documentation of a Jack-in-the-Box toy was of one made in Germany in the early 16th century by a clockmaker as a gift for the son of a local prince. The wooden box had a handle on the side that when cranked, would play music until a “jack”, or devil on a spring was suddenly released. Word spread among the nobles, creating demand for the toy. Technology improved, and by the 1700s, the Jack-in-the-Box had become easier to produce, thus becoming a common toy for people of all ages. The Cockney tune known as “Pop Goes the Weasel” became a frequently used melody in the toy. The Jack-in-the-Box itself became a frequently used image in political cartoons, featuring the face of the latest politician to be lambasted. Out again,Political cartoon,Theodore Roosevelt as jack-in-the-box, fists raised. In the 1930s, the Jack-in-the-Box began to be made out of tin, rather than wood. The exterior of the boxes were stamped with images from nursery rhymes and the “jack” was changed to one of the characters featured in the rhymes. The music was sometimes the tune traditionally sung along to the rhyme. In 1951 restaurateur Robert O. Peterson opened the first Jack in the Box hamburger stand. The top of the building featured a clown head sprouting from a SpeakerBox. In 1980 the company rebranded and the clown’s head became a simple sphere, often sitting atop a human body. The Jack-in-the-Box character continues to be made today and it makes for a great toy for young children, due to the surprise factor associated with it. Of course, many people who are merely young at heart enjoy them, too. Charlie-in-the-Box from Island of Misfit Toys, TV's Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer 1964 Snoopy Jack-in-the-Box Snoopy Peanuts Characters on tin box 1966 Mattel. Source: Wikipedia - Jack-in-the-Box | Classic Toys: Jack-in-the-Box
  13. 1 point
    https://www.epicgames.com/store/en-US/product/rollercoaster-tycoon-3-complete-edition/home RollerCoaster Tycoon 3: Complete Edition is free on Epic Games Store. https://www.totalwar.com/access-amazons/ A Total War Saga: Troy Amazons DLC is currently free on Epic Games Store. https://store.steampowered.com/app/1414700/The_Imagined_Leviathan/ The Imagined Leviathan is free on Steam.
  14. 1 point
    What's the Word? - MOLESKIN pronunciation: [MOHL-skin] Part of speech: noun Origin: Middle English, 17th century Meaning: 1. The skin of a mole used as fur. 2. A thick, strong cotton fabric with a shaved pile surface Example: "I found a vintage coat lined with moleskin in exactly my size." "I need to buy three yards of moleskin to make my new comforter." About Moleskin While moleskin originally meant the fur from an actual mole, it now applies to a cotton fabric with a soft nap, similar to the animal's fur. It's also used in American English to refer to the soft adhesive fabric you'll put in a new shoe to avoid blisters. Did you Know? Say "moleskin" and people might think you're talking about Moleskine, an Italian stationery company. It produces notebooks, sketchbooks, and various writing accessories favored by writers and creative types across the world.
  15. 1 point
    Yeah, I'll be watching AoT Season 4 whenever the dub begins. Seems like we're getting 4 weekly recap episodes in November:
  16. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - ARBORICULTURE An arborist practicing tree care: using a chainsaw to fell a eucalyptus tree in a park at Kallista, Victoria. Did you know.... that arboriculture is the cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants. The science of arboriculture studies how these plants grow and respond to cultural practices and to their environment. The practice of arboriculture includes cultural techniques such as selection, planting, training, fertilization, pest and pathogen control, pruning, shaping, and removal. (Wikipedia) The basic principles and objectives of arboriculture are of ancient origin. Early Egyptians transplanted trees with a ball of earth and originated the practice of shaping the soil around a newly planted tree to form a saucer to retain water, both still practiced. About 300 BC the Greek philosopher Theophrastus wrote Peri phytōn historia (“Inquiry into Plants”), in which he discussed transplanting of trees and the treatment of tree wounds. Virgil’s Georgics portrays Roman knowledge of tree culture. The English horticulturist John Evelyn, in his Sylva, or a Discourse of Forest-trees, and the Propagation of Timber (1664), offered advice on pruning, insect control, wound treatment, and transplanting. Trees or plants may be propagated by seeding, grafting, layering, or cutting. In seeding, seeds are usually planted in either a commercial or home nursery in which intensive care can be given for several years until the plants are of a size suitable for transplanting on the desired site. In soil layering, the shoots, or lower branches of the parent plant, are bent to the ground and covered with moist soil of good quality. When roots have developed, which may require a year or more, the branch is severed from the parent and transplanted. In an alternative technique, air layering, the branch is deeply slit and the wound covered by a ball of earth, moss, or similar material. The ball, enclosed in a divided pot supported from underneath, or in a sturdy paper cone, is kept moist. As in soil layering, the branch is severed and transplanted after roots have developed. Root cuttings can be used for propagating trees that do not normally produce roots from stems. Tree species such as willow and poplar that sucker, or send up shoots readily, are usually propagated from stem cuttings. Cuttings are made from deciduous plants during dormancy, preferably from the terminal growing shoots of the current season. Pieces 6 to 10 inches (15 to 25 centimetres) long with two or more buds are tied in bundles and stored in damp sand or moss for callus formation before planting in prepared beds. Root formation may be stimulated by application of growth-promoting chemicals or growth hormones. In treating tree-trunk wounds in which large areas of bark are torn away, the bark around the wound is trimmed back to sound tissue and, at the top and bottom of the injury, trimmed to form a pointed ellipse of the wound area. The exposed wood is covered with wound dressing material, protecting it from wood decay fungi. Repairing Damaged Tree Bark Flexible cables (guys) or rigid braces are used to support recently transplanted trees until the roots become established, or to lessen the danger that a tree with a weakened root system will be blown over by the wind; bracing is also used to support unduly long or heavy branches, to prevent splits developing at branch forks, or to permit healing of splits already developed. Cavities in trunks, caused by decay-inducing fungi, may be treated with antiseptic dressing and left open, with drains installed at the bottom, or filled with concrete or other material after removal of the decayed wood. See also graft; pruning; transplant. Fun Facts About Arboriculture The general aim of arboriculture is to cultivate trees for amenity reasons. Arborists recognize these trees as a source of beauty to homes and gardens. The difference between arboriculture and forestry is that arboriculture is concerned with cultivating trees and shrubs to enhance the pleasantness and desirability of a garden. On the other hand, forestry, also known as silviculture, is an art of establishing and managing trees mainly for the production of timber. Forest Ecosystem It is also essential to recognize that both arboriculture and forestry share certain similarities. Both disciplines require specific sets of scientific skills to establish. In addition to this, the two are equally important and there is a need for advocating the importance of planting trees and taking care of the already existing ones. That is why there is a need for professional arborists, especially in urban areas where trees can pose some dangers to people or vehicles passing by. The people behind Maple Leaf recognize these threats and have made the jobs of arborists not only easier, but safer as well by providing them with quality gear that allows them to work more efficiently in an urban community. They believe that there is absolutely no need to cut down a tree way ahead of its time, and that maintenance will be more beneficial not only to the tree but to the community as well. Below are some fun facts about arboriculture: 1. There Are More Tree Species Than There Are Tribes Of The World Surprisingly, it was until 2007 when a world census for trees took place. Yes, trees get counted too! This is to ascertain the tree species that are either near extinction or are already extinct. The research conducted back then revealed that there were more than 600,000 tree species on the face of the earth. The data was compiled both from the field, botanical centers, agricultural centers, and museums. Some tree species have played a crucial role in human development both economically and culturally. Economically in the sense that certain tree species will specifically be used for the production of high-quality timber, ropes, paper, and rubber. You'll bear witness that man can not do without paper and rubber. The databases of ancient trees such as the Old list dates certain species of trees at White Mountains of California as over 4,800 years old! 2. Can Trees Really Communicate With Each Other? The ability to signal each other when there is an attack coming either from insects or from the changes in the environment has for the longest time baffled scientists globally. Trees will use the networks they share when drawing nutrients from the ground to send distress signals about eminent insect attacks, diseases, and drought. When various trees receive these signals, they'll change their behaviors including folding their leaves or shedding them. Arborists and other scientists have established that trees can defend themselves against insect attacks by folding their leaves or by shedding them. 3. Certain Species Of Trees Have Gender Like human beings and other living organisms, there is a need for reproduction. Some trees, such as pine reproduce sexually. The male pine cone secretes pollen grains and sheds on the female pine cones for pollination. The female pine cones then make seeds which will then, on the ground, germinate and grow into adorable pine “babies”! A mature female Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri) cone, the heaviest pine cone. 4. Planting Of Trees and Shrubs Drastically Reduces The Cost Of Energy When you start smart landscaping, you save energy costs. Having trees and shrubs on your property can save you up to 25% of your energy bills. When trees are strategically positioned, they'll provide your home with natural air conditioning thus slashing those air conditioning bills by nearly half and in addition to this, they'll block the winter draft so you don't have to keep your heaters running. In a way, trees care about your economic well being and it's time you gave back by protecting them! 5. Trees And Shrubs Offer Excellent Protection And Add Value To A Property They’ll provide vegetative cover to your property, protecting it from soil erosion, and provide food to insects that would otherwise become a menace in your household. The proper selection, cultivation, and maintenance of trees and shrubs can help to increase the value of your property. They provide shade to your land by preventing excessive heating by the sun’s radiation. 6. Trees Can Be Used as a Compass In the northern hemisphere, the moss plant grows in the temperate climates on the north side of tree trunks. This is the side associated with more shade. You can follow the direction using the shadows to find your way. This is an old wisdom that has been passed from one generation to the other. If your compass is stuck, don't worry, stay calm, and follow the moss! Aren't these facts amazing! You probably didn't know that trees actually cared about your well being, right? For centuries, trees have existed peacefully with mankind but unfortunately, man is almost driving some tree species into extinction. This means that there is a great need to plant more trees and take care of the already existing ones. This will help restore a harmonious balance. Source: Wikipedia - Arboriculture | Britannica - Arboriculture | Fun Facts about Arboriculture
  17. 1 point
    https://www.epicgames.com/store/en-US/product/rocket-league/home Rocket League is now free to play on Epic Games Store. Add this game to your library to receive a $10 coupon. Players will also receive the Sun Ray Boost and Hot Rocks Trail for free. https://freebies.indiegala.com/unforgiving-trials-the-darkest-crusade/ Unforgiving Trials: The Darkest Crusade is currently free on IndieGala. https://store.steampowered.com/app/346850/Chips_Challenge_1/ Chips Challenge 1 is free on Steam.
  18. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - NOBLE GASES Kripton (Kr) Did you know... that the noble gases (historically also the inert gases; sometimes referred to as aerogens) make up a class of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity. The six naturally occurring noble gases are helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and the radioactive radon (Rn). Oganesson (Og) is variously predicted to be a noble gas as well or to break the trend due to relativistic effects; its chemistry has not yet been investigated. (Wikipedia) In 1785 Henry Cavendish, an English chemist and physicist, found that air contains a small proportion (slightly less than 1 percent) of a substance that is chemically less active than nitrogen. A century later Lord Rayleigh, an English physicist, isolated from the air a gas that he thought was pure nitrogen, but he found that it was denser than nitrogen that had been prepared by liberating it from its compounds. He reasoned that his aerial nitrogen must contain a small amount of a denser gas. In 1894, Sir William Ramsay, a Scottish chemist, collaborated with Rayleigh in isolating this gas, which proved to be a new element—argon. Apparatus used in the isolation of argon by English physicist Lord Rayleigh and chemist Sir William Ramsay, 1894 After the discovery of argon, and at the instigation of other scientists, in 1895 Ramsay investigated the gas released upon heating the mineral clevite, which was thought to be a source of argon. Instead, the gas was helium, which in 1868 had been detected spectroscopically in the Sun but had not been found on Earth. Ramsay and his coworkers searched for related gases and by fractional distillation of liquid air discovered krypton, neon, and xenon, all in 1898. Radon was first identified in 1900 by German chemist Friedrich E. Dorn; it was established as a member of the noble-gas group in 1904. Rayleigh and Ramsay won Nobel Prizes in 1904 for their work. In 1895 the French chemist Henri Moissan, who discovered elemental fluorine in 1886 and was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1906 for that discovery, failed in an attempt to bring about a reaction between fluorine and argon. This result was significant because fluorine is the most reactive element in the periodic table. In fact, all late 19th- and early 20th-century efforts to prepare chemical compounds of argon failed. The lack of chemical reactivity implied by these failures was of significance in the development of theories of atomic structure. In 1913 the Danish physicist Niels Bohr proposed that the electrons in atoms are arranged in successive shells having characteristic energies and capacities and that the capacities of the shells for electrons determine the numbers of elements in the rows of the periodic table. On the basis of experimental evidence relating chemical properties to electron distributions, it was suggested that in the atoms of the noble gases heavier than helium, the electrons are arranged in these shells in such a way that the outermost shell always contains eight electrons, no matter how many others (in the case of radon, 78 others) are arranged within the inner shells. In a theory of chemical bonding advanced by American chemist Gilbert N. Lewis and German chemist Walther Kossel in 1916, this octet of electrons was taken to be the most stable arrangement for the outermost shell of any atom. Although only the noble-gas atoms possessed this arrangement, it was the condition toward which the atoms of all other elements tended in their chemical bonding. Certain elements satisfied this tendency by either gaining or losing electrons outright, thereby becoming ions; other elements shared electrons, forming stable combinations linked together by covalent bonds. The proportions in which atoms of elements combined to form ionic or covalent compounds (their “valences”) were thus controlled by the behaviour of their outermost electrons, which—for this reason—were called valence electrons. This theory explained the chemical bonding of the reactive elements, as well as the noble gases’ relative inactivity, which came to be regarded as their chief chemical characteristic. Shell atomic modelIn the shell atomic model, electrons occupy different energy levels, or shells. The K and L shells are shown for a neon atom. Screened from the nucleus by intervening electrons, the outer (valence) electrons of the atoms of the heavier noble gases are held less firmly and can be removed (ionized) more easily from the atoms than can the electrons of the lighter noble gases. The energy required for the removal of one electron is called the first ionization energy. In 1962, while working at the University of British Columbia, British chemist Neil Bartlett discovered that platinum hexafluoride would remove an electron from (oxidize) molecular oxygen to form the salt [O2+][PtF6−]. The first ionization energy of xenon is very close to that of oxygen; thus Bartlett thought that a salt of xenon might be formed similarly. In the same year, Bartlett established that it is indeed possible to remove electrons from xenon by chemical means. He showed that the interaction of PtF6 vapour in the presence of xenon gas at room temperature produced a yellow-orange solid compound then formulated as [Xe+][PtF6−]. (This compound is now known to be a mixture of [XeF+][PtF6−], [XeF+] [Pt2F11−], and PtF5.) Shortly after the initial report of this discovery, two other teams of chemists independently prepared and subsequently reported fluorides of xenon—namely, XeF2 and XeF4. These achievements were soon followed by the preparation of other xenon compounds and of the fluorides of radon (1962) and krypton (1963). In 2006, scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, announced that oganesson, the next noble gas, had been made in 2002 and 2005 in a cyclotron. (Most elements with atomic numbers greater than 92—i.e., the transuranium elements—have to be made in particle accelerators.) No physical or chemical properties of oganesson can be directly determined since only a few atoms of oganesson have been produced. General Properties Of The Group Each noble-gas element is situated in the periodic table between an element of the most electronegative group, the halogen elements (Group 17, the atoms of which add electrons to achieve the octet and thereby become negative ions), and an element of the most electropositive group, the alkali metals (Group 1, the atoms of which lose electrons to become positive ions). Several important uses of the noble gases depend on their reluctance to react chemically. Their indifference toward oxygen, for example, confers utter non-flammability upon the noble gases. Although helium is not quite as buoyant as hydrogen, its incombustibility makes it a safer lifting gas for lighter-than-air craft. The noble gases—most often helium and argon, the least expensive—are used to provide chemically unreactive environments for such operations as cutting, welding, and refining of metals such as aluminium (atmospheric oxygen and, in some cases, nitrogen or carbon dioxide would react with the hot metal). The helium-filled balloon Bubble, manned by a scientist researching the rainforest canopy, in the Danum Valley, Sabah, Malay., 2005. The noble gases absorb and emit electromagnetic radiation in a much less complex way than do other substances. This behaviour is used in discharge lamps and fluorescent lighting devices: if any noble gas is confined at low pressure in a glass tube and an electrical discharge is passed through it, the gas will glow. Neon produces the familiar orange-red colour of advertising signs; xenon emits a beautiful blue colour. Noble gases have uses that are derived from their other chemical properties. The very low boiling points and melting points of the noble gases make them useful in the study of matter at extremely low temperatures. The low solubility of helium in fluids leads to its admixture with oxygen for breathing by deep-sea divers: because helium does not dissolve in the blood, it does not form bubbles upon decompression (as nitrogen does, leading to the condition known as decompression sickness, or the bends). Xenon has been used as an anesthetic; although it is costly, it is nonflammable and readily eliminated from the body. Radon is highly radioactive; its only uses have been those that exploit this property (e.g., radiation therapy). (Oganesson is also radioactive, but, since only a few atoms of this element have thus far been observed, its physical and chemical properties cannot be documented.) Only krypton, xenon, and radon are known to form stable compounds. The compounds of these noble gases are powerful oxidizing agents (substances that tend to remove electrons from others) and have potential value as reagents in the synthesis of other chemical compounds. Source: Wikipedia - Noble Gas | Britannica - Noble Gas by Gary J. Schrobilgen
  19. 1 point
    What's the Word? - NEOPHILIA pronunciation: [nee-ə-FIL-ee-ə] Part of speech: noun Origin: American English, late 19th century Meaning: 1. Love of, preference for, or great interest in what is new. 2. A love of novelty. Example: "My neophilia means I always buy the new generation of iPhone as soon as it's released." "I accused my father of neophilia when he brought home yet another smart gadget." About Neophilia The great thing about Ancient Greek is that so many new words can be created from its roots. "Neo" means new and "philia" means fondness. Neophilia, quite simply, is a love or preference for all that is new and trendy. Did you Know? The first documented usage of "neophilia" was in "Political Science Quarterly," an academic journal founded in the late 19th century. Millennial and Gen Z social media influencers are the perfect purveyors of neophilia, or a love of new trends.
  20. 1 point
    These are series/movies I'd definitely say people should check out if they haven't already in alphabetical order: .hack//SIGN 91 Days Angel Beats! Another A Silent Voice Attack on Titan Basilisk Black Lagoon BTOOOM! Children of the Whales Claymore Colorful Cowboy Bebop Darker Than Black Deadman Wonderland Death Note Death Parade Demon Slayer: Kimetsu no Yaiba Dr. Stone Eden of the East ef ~ a tale of memories Elfen Lied Eureka Seven Expelled from Paradise From The New World Fullmetal Alchemist Gantz Ga-Rei Zero Gargantia on the Verdurous Planet Genshiken Ghost in the Shell GOD EATER Grave of the Fireflies Grimgar: Ashes & Illusions Gundam: 08th MS Team Gungrave Gurren Lagann Hatsukoi Limited Hunter x Hunter Inuyashiki Kanon (2006) Made in Abyss Moribito Ninja Scroll Noragami Now and Then, Here and There Orange Outlaw Star Psycho-Pass Rainbow Re:Zero R.O.D. the TV Rumbling Hearts Rurouni Kenshin: Trust & Betrayal Saga of Tanya the Evil School Days Seraph of the End Shion no Ou Somali and the Forest Spirit Soul Eater Spice & Wolf Spiral Steins;Gate Terror in Resonance The Ancient Magus' Bride The Boy and the Beast The Promised Neverland The Twelve Kingdoms The Vision of Escaflowne Tokyo Magnitude 8.0 Vinland Saga Whisper of the Heart Witch Hunter Robin Wolf Children Xam'd: Lost Memories Your Name. Yuyu Hakusho
  21. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - TOMMYKNOCKERS Tommyknocker Did you know... that the Tommyknockers were first heard of in the United States when Cornish miners worked in the western Pennsylvania coal mines in the 1820s. When the California Gold Rush began, these experienced Cornish miners were welcomed and often sought after by the mine owners. (Wikipedia) The TommyKnocker legend, so folklore tells us, is a little imp like creature that inhabits old mining shafts. The further back you dig the more chance you have of waking up a Tommyknocker. They earned their names from the miners. Too often to be coincidence, the miners would hear a knocking coming from deep within the mines. Always in a pattern. Then the entire thing would cave in.. California Gold Rush The Cornish believed these wee little men were the souls of the Crusaders who crucified Jesus Christ. They also believed they were sent by the Romans to work in the tin mines The Tommyknocker was never heard on a Saturday or during any time of Jewish festivities. Ranging in size from 2ft tall to just inches from the ground, and most often seen as tiny little men wearing miners clothing. Kind of like grizzly little Gnomes. THE NATURE OF A TOMMYKNOCKER, GOOD OR EVIL? There is a lot of theory around these little guys, some say they are the spirits of dead miners. Some miners believed their former workmates were tapping and knocking on the walls of the mines as a warning of danger, telling them to get out. You do not ignore a Tommyknocker, not if you want to live. However, nowhere else in the paranormal world have we heard of the ordinary ghost turning into anything but a human spirit after death. So it makes more sense that these things were never human, to begin with. An Ancient Depiction of Tommyknockers, Tommyknocker They are said to, first, manifest as little glowing lights and then a strange mist will take the form of a fallen miner and then, but very rarely, show their true form. Miners for generations have been leaving out food for the Tommyknockers in order to gain their favor. However, there are those who have mocked them as well. A written story from miners in the hills of Smokeshire almost 200 years ago, tells us of a group of seven miners were at work when they heard a faint sequenced tapping from deep back in the mine. Three of seven laughed and joked, claiming the Tommyknockers did not exist and began provoking them. ”C'mon then Tommyknockers show us what you can do.” The remaining 4 miners fled. They actually saw the impish like creatures running ahead of them whilst the mine collapsed. The three who mocked the Tommyknockers died. Another theory is that the little monsters lure people deep into the shafts, you can sometimes hear them calling you by name. Also, a terrifying theory will tell us that the knocking sounds are the Tommyknockers chipping away at the support beams. Whatever these incredible little creatures may be, they are elusive. If you wish to find them yourself go look where they have been seen, grab a torch and head into the mine. But, if you hear a knocking, by now, you should know what to do. RUN. Mining is one the oldest professions out there as well as being one of the most dangerous. No doubt that countless miners have been buried alive in the mines. Such an ancient practice will always have its superstitions, such as our dear little friend the Tommyknocker. The Tommyknocker has been held responsible for both the deaths and near death experiences of the miners. These Impish little creatures have been seen in the deepest parts of mines all over the world for centuries. Tommyknocker is a term that sends terror into the heart of ancient miners. Today Tommyknocker is an untold truth, that we as the most curious of our generation, we hunt for. Are They Good Or Evil? Many miners believe that tommyknockers have good intentions. They are convinced that their former mining co-workers tap and knock on the walls to warn them of impending danger (such as cave-ins) and to get out of the location immediately. They are also thought to bring miners wealth and favors. They are also known to be rather mischievous and can play pranks on miners, such as eating their lunches, to hiding their tools, pinching them, and knocking their hard hats off. A more disturbing theory is that they are in fact monsters who call out people’s names in order to lure them deep into the shafts. Others believe that the knocks people hear aren’t that of the tommyknockers warning the miners, but of the little monsters chipping away at the support beams in an evil manner of causing a cave-in. Stephen King’s “The Tommyknockers” When a lot of people think of the word “tommyknocker,” they automatically think of Stephen King’s book, although it’s completely different from the actual tommyknocker legend that haunts many mines around the world. In 1987, Stephen King wrote a science fiction novel titled “The Tommyknockers.” However, his book was about aliens instead of the little gnome-like creatures that we are accustomed to hearing about. Then in 1993, there was a television mini-series based on King’s novel. After last year’s huge success of the movie It, which was based on one of his books, King’s novel is now also being made into a movie. The Cornish Folklore Cornish miners from Cornwall, England were considered to be the leading people in mining technology and were thought of as the greatest hard rock miners in the world, therefore they were brought to America in the 1800s to help with the mining industry. They were, however, known to be very superstitious when it came to their mining jobs. Their biggest superstition was that of the tommyknockers. The Cornish described these creatures as little people who were two feet tall, had big heads, long arms, wrinkled faces, and white whiskers. They believed that these little men snuck into the Cornish miners’ luggage before heading to America. There were very particular on listening to the knocks as they believed that two knocks meant “dig here” or “that’s it,” where three knocks meant “don’t dig here” or “it ain’t here.” Superstitions It’s no secret that miners are superstitious, especially working in such dangerous conditions. Some superstitions include that it is very unlucky to whistle inside of mines because it is offensive to the tommyknockers. Miners also usually carry extra food with them in their lunch pails as a friendly offering to the tommyknockers. And after their shifts, when the miners would go to the bar and tell stories about the little creatures, they would make extra room for the tommyknockers to sit at the bar with them. Miners also believed that it was bad luck for a woman to go into a mine, especially if she had red hair. Also, if a miner’s clothes slipped off the hook in the changing room, it meant that he was going to fall into a hole. Another superstition is that if a miner’s lamp didn’t burn bright enough underground, it means that his wife was out with another man. Cripple Creek Tommyknockers Legend has it that tommyknockers haunted the Mamie R. Mine which was located near Cripple Creek, Colorado. While tommyknockers are believed to be both good and evil, the fear alone caused countless miners to leave that mine and never go back. Other miners who were much less superstitious worked at the Mamie R. Mine hoping to get rich. However, tragedy did strike that mine. A man by the name of Hank Bull was convinced that he heard the voice of a boy who was lost in a tunnel, but when he went down to search for the child, the ceiling collapsed, killing him. Another death happened when a bucket fell and crushed a miner’s skull. After those deaths, other miners reported seeing the ghosts of these two men in the mine. There were also reports of hearing whispers and seeing odd shapes moving around. The miners, who believed it was the tommyknockers who were causing all of the tragic deaths, decided they finally had enough and left the mine for good. In January 1895, the mine closed. Tommyknockers In Oregon’s Crescent Mine The Crescent Mine in Sumpter, Oregon is a well-known hot spot for tommyknockers and there was even a show called Ghost Mine that ran for two seasons starting in 2013, documenting the strange experiences at that location. In addition to several experienced miners, two paranormal investigators also joined the team in search of what was haunting the mine. The location was once a booming mining town until a fire tragically destroyed the mine in 1917. With a number of unexplained tragedies that happened in the mine, it received a bad reputation for being haunted and was closed down. It was again reopened at the time when Ghost Mine was filmed but was eventually put up for sale by the owners. It is said that there is still around $10 million worth of gold inside of the Crescent Mine, so maybe it’s worth dealing with the tommyknockers and ghosts. The Hills Of Smokeshire While most people want to stay on the good side of tommyknockers, there is one story where a group of miners mocked the little creatures and the end result was devastating. Around 200 years ago, there were seven miners who were working in the hills of Smokeshire at a gold mine when they heard tapping sounds from deep within the mine. Instead of listening to the warning and getting out there immediately, three of the seven miners started laughing and joking, saying that tommyknockers didn’t exist. They also provoked them by saying “C’mon then tommyknockers show us what you can do.” Four of the miners left the area immediately, but the three who mocked the tommyknockers died in the cave-in. The four who escaped also said that they actually saw the tommyknockers as they were running out of the mine. Although there is still said to be gold in the mine, nobody would go back in there to work and it was sealed up. The Phoenix Gold Mine The Phoenix Gold Mine is located in Idaho Springs, Colorado. The mine was originally discovered in 1871 and it has a tragic past. Two men were murdered close to the mine and there were remains found of two people who were buried inside. One of the two deceased people who were found was said to have been a witch who was into black magic. The owner of the mine said that a visitor told him that they had a conversation with a person who then just vanished. In fact, many people who have visited the location have reported seeing two ghostly apparitions of men. Another claim is that people hear their names being whispered and many have seen the ghost of an old miner. And yes, there have been several reports of tommyknockers believed to be in the mine, as well as people hearing knocks. The Ghost Adventures crew did an investigation there and they caught some interesting evidence. Are They Or Aren’t They Real? The tommyknocker legend has been around for centuries and many miners believe in them. Is it simply coincidental that just before a cave-in, they hear knocking sounds? Perhaps, but it also could be a warning from the tommyknockers to get out. And it’s a little unnerving to think that when three miners made fun of the tommyknockers, they were trapped and killed by a cave-in while their co-workers took the knocking sounds as warnings and escaped unharmed. And we can’t discredit all of the eye-witness reports of miners seeing tiny men in old mining outfits. Whether tommyknockers are just a legend or based on actual fact, one thing is for certain and that’s whenever miners hear knocking sounds coming from inside of the mine, it’s time to run out as fast as they can. Source: Wikipedia - Knocker (Folklore) | The Tommyknocker Legend | Facts About the Tommyknocker Legend
  22. 1 point
    What's the Word? - HARDSCAPE pronunciation: [HARD-skayp] Part of speech: noun Origin: American English Meaning: 1. The man-made features used in landscape architecture, e.g. paths or walls, as contrasted with vegetation. Example: "I would like some hardscape, but my husband only wants greenery in the yard." "The garden will feature a fountain and some additional hardscape." About Hardscape Hardscape is the name for the manmade elements you'll find in landscaping, such as paved paths or statues or a gazebo. Your landscape architect will consider the hardscape just as much as the natural environment. Did you Know? Xeriscape is a type of landscaping that requires little to no water. It features rocks and drought-resistant plants to make a beautiful landscape in a dry climate, possibly with some hardscape as well.
  23. 1 point
    What's the Word? - MISCELLANY pronunciation: [MIH-sə-leh-nee] Part of speech: noun Origin: Latin, late 16th century Meaning: 1. A group or collection of different items; a mixture. 2. A book containing a collection of pieces of writing by different authors. Example: "There's just a bunch of miscellany in the attic — nothing valuable." "My poem will be published in an upcoming volume of miscellany." About Miscellany From Latin, "miscellanea" is the plural noun for miscellaneous items. The French borrowed it for "miscellanées" and we use "miscellany" as a more charming description for a collection of items that don't deserve to be called junk. Did you Know? As a publishing term, "miscellany" describes a volume that collects work from different authors or sources. It could even be a novelty book gathering trivia or bits of memorabilia. Miscellaneous writing and knowledge can be gathered in a miscellany.
  24. 1 point
    https://freebies.indiegala.com/the-tomorrow-war The Tomorrow War is currently free on IndieGala. https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.SarangKoding.Requence Requence is currently free on Android.
  25. 1 point
    Fact of the Day – CHER Did you know…. that Cher (born Cherilyn Sarkisian; May 20, 1946) is an American singer, actress and television personality. Commonly referred to by the media as the "Goddess of Pop", she has been described as embodying female autonomy in a male-dominated industry. Cher is known for her distinctive contralto singing voice and for having worked in numerous areas of entertainment, as well as adopting a variety of styles and appearances throughout her six-decade-long career. (Wikipedia) But what do we really know about this singer, songwriter, actor, and all-around amazing idol? We know that she’s had a career of some ups and downs, but that she’s still performing for huge crowds at the age of 74. We know that she’s been a style icon for decades, and we know that her music will stand the test of time. But there’s more to Cher than meets the eye. How did she grow up? What goes on in her day-to-day life? These are the questions that true Cher fans ask themselves. These 10 facts about Cher will help you get more acquainted with the superstar. 1. She Started As An Extra For TV When she was just a little girl, Cher started her career along with her little sister as an extra on TV shows like The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet. Cher’s mother, Georgia Holt, was also a bit actress and occasional model. She was able to secure the parts for her children. 2. She Once Stayed At An Orphanage For Several Weeks Cher and her mother are and always have been very close, but times weren’t always easy. Cher remembers having to keep her shoes together with rubber bands while moving all over the country, hoping her mother would make ends meet. There was a period of time when Georgia had to leave her daughter at an orphanage for a few weeks. The experience was traumatizing for both of them, as documented by Cheryl Napsha and Connie Berman, authors of Cher. These days, you can find Cher and her mother posing for pictures together, all smiles! 3. She Found Her Cat Under A Truck On Tour Cher found her beloved cat, Mr. Big, underneath one of her tour trucks when she was in Detroit. 4. Sonny Didn't Want To Change With The Times In Cher’s book The First Time, she says that when tastes were shifting to heavier rock music with the likes of Zeppelin and Cream, she was game to move in that direction. In fact, she really liked the heavier feel. However, her husband Sonny was set on keeping their original image. Ultimately, their clean-cut image and sound caused them to lose their previously strong fan base. 5. She Thinks David Letterman Is In Love With Her Cher once told US Weekly that she is convinced that former late night TV host David Letterman is in love with her. No word from David on how true this hunch is. 6. While She Looks Amazing, She's Not Keen On Aging As incredible as Cher looks, and as much as it seems that she’s found some magical way to turn back time, she told CBS about how much she doesn’t like aging. This may seem surprising at first, but really, it just proves that she’s no different than the rest of us. 7. She Doesn't "Need To Be In A Hall To Rock" Cher, for some reason unbeknownst to us, has not been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. She’s taken a pretty rock ‘n’ roll attitude towards it, though, telling CBS, “I don’t need to be in a hall to rock.” She knows what she’s worth — and that she’s the only artist to ever have a #1 Billboard hit on at least one chart for six straight decades. Who needs ’em, anyway? 8. Illness Temporarily Sent Her Career In A Different Direction When Cher contracted Epstein–Barr virus in the early 1990s, she was too weak to continue with the busy and taxing music and film career she’d started. To pay the bills, she started doing infomercials. The public took hold of this and turned her into the queen of infomercials. Cher had no idea that taking these jobs would essentially strip her of everything else she’d accomplished up to that point, such as performing with David Bowie in the 1970s. Many thought that her career was over. Little did they know how wrong they were. 9. She's Worth $305 Million Speaking of Cher’s worth, according to The Richest, Cher’s net worth is $305 million. That’s no small dice! 10. She And Meryl Streep Are Basically Superheroes In her interview in Us Weekly, Cher says that she and Meryl once saved a young woman from getting mugged in New York City. I can totally picture that happening in my head, no stretch of the imagination needed, as they both seem like very strong and kind women. Source: Wikipedia – Cher | Facts You Didn’t Know About Cher
  26. 1 point
    https://www.epicgames.com/store/en-US/product/watch-dogs-2/home Watch Dogs 2 is currently free on Epic Games Store. https://www.epicgames.com/store/en-US/product/football-manager-2020/home Football Manager 2020 is currently free on Epic Games Store. https://www.epicgames.com/store/en-US/product/stick-it-to-the-man/home Stick it to the Man! is currently free on Epic Games Store.
  27. 1 point
    What's the Word? - BUCK-AND-WING pronunciation: [bə-kən-wiNG] Part of speech: noun Origin: American English Meaning: 1. A lively solo tap dance, typically done in wooden-soled shoes. Example: "Get the music started, and let's watch some buck-and-wing!" "I won first place for my buck-and-wing at the county fair." About Buck-And-Wing Before tap dancing, there was buck-and-wing. This fast and flashy type of dance combined elements of Irish clogging and African rhythms for a style that was very popular in 19th-century minstrel shows. Did you Know? It's believed that Irish indentured servants and African enslaved people shared their dancing and musical heritages on Southern plantations, and these styles influenced the modern traditions of tap dancing. Buck-and-wing was an early style of tap dance, performed solo with heavy wooden shoes.
  28. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - SUNGLASSES Did you know.. that sunglasses or sun glasses (informally called shades or sunnies) are a form of protective eyewear designed primarily to prevent bright sunlight and high-energy visible light from damaging or discomforting the eyes. They can sometimes also function as a visual aid, as variously termed spectacles or glasses exist, featuring lenses that are colored, polarized or darkened. In the early 20th century, they were also known as sun cheaters (cheaters then being an American slang term for glasses). (Wikipedia) A Brief History of Sunglasses The right pair of shades can make or break an outfit. But just who do we have to thank for this sartorial — yet practical — invention? Primitive sunglasses were worn by the Inuit all the way back in prehistoric times, but these were merely walrus ivory with slits in them — good for helping with snow blindness but not particularly fashionable (unless you were a prehistoric Inuit). These snow goggles shielded the eyes with only narrow slits in the front. Inuits also rubbed them with gunpowder or soot mixed with oil to further combat the sun glare off of the snow. Although these weren’t “glasses” per se, the Inuits were onto an idea that wouldn’t be fully realized until centuries later. Image: Anavik at Banks Peninsula, Bathurst Inlet, Northwest Territories (Nunavut), May 18, 1916, Photo by Rudolph Martin Anderson, Canadian, 1876–1961, Canadian Museum of Civilization, 39026. Legend has it that the emperor Nero watched gladiator fights wearing emerald lenses, but many historians cite this claim as iffy. The Chinese made a slight improvement over the Inuit model in the 12th century, when they used smoky quartz for lenses, but the specs were used for concealing judges’ facial expressions rather than style or sunlight purposes. Smoky Quartz Sunglasses were seen again in the 1400s in Italy, where it’s said that the first pair of darkened glasses was first introduced, although there isn’t a lot of evidence to verify this. In the mid-1700s, a London optician began experimenting with green lenses to help with certain vision problems — and, indeed, green is the best color for protecting your peepers from the sun’s rays. Emerald-tinted specs remained quite the rage for some time, as evidenced by several mentions in the works of Nathaniel Hawthorne and Edgar Allan Poe. From there, lenses that were tinted blue and green were developed. Ayscough often is credited with being a major sunglasses pioneer. The last major development that would ultimately influence future sunglasses came from Sir David Brewster (who also invented the kaleidoscope), during his studies on polarized light. Brewster figured out the angle at which light on a reflective surface may be transmitted as plane-polarized. This came to be known as “Brewster’s Angle,” and without it, we wouldn’t have polarized sunglasses today. It wasn’t until the 20th century that modern sunglasses as we know them were invented. In 1929, Sam Foster began selling the first mass-produced shades, which soon became a hot fashion item on the Atlantic City Boardwalk. A few years later, Bausch & Lomb got in on the act when the company began making sunglasses for American military aviators, a design that has changed little since General Douglas MacArthur sparked a new trend when he wore a pair to the movies. Douglas MacArthur Sunglasses go mainstream Little by little, people began wearing tinted glasses to deal with eye issues including light sensitivity, which was a symptom of syphilis. Sunglasses weren’t something that people with regular vision wore or wanted. In fact, people who wore them often stood out for having something wrong with their eyes. All that changed in 1929, thanks to Sam Foster. Foster sold the first pair of sunglasses on the Atlantic City boardwalk intended for the mass market, and it was quite the hit among beachgoers. The brand became known as Foster Grant, "The Original American Sunglass Brand." Meanwhile, in Hollywood, sunglasses were also starting to be associated with glamour and glitz. Back then, the strong lighting on movie sets and photographer flash bulbs were causing eye strain, so movie stars began wearing sunglasses in public to protect their eyes. Then came 1936, when the American inventor Edwin H. Land (who also co-founded Polaroid) created a polarizing lightweight filter that could be produced inexpensively for use on sunglasses. With that polarization technology in place, Bausch & Lomb developed Ray-Ban sunglasses, intended as anti-glare spectacles for pilots, and soon after, marketed them to outdoor enthusiasts. While regular sunglasses cost a few cents, this style was considered a specialty item costing several dollars. The shape and tint of these sporting gear sunglasses ushered in the popular aviator sunglasses still popular today. Sunglasses and pop culture From the mid-20th century to the present, sunglasses have become a huge part of pop culture, with fashion icons, rock stars, actors and politicians sporting shades. Tom Cruise in Top Gun John Lennon, Bob Dylan, Audrey Hepburn and Bono are just a few celebrities who have their own signature sunglasses style. John Lennon Glasses Other famous shades include Jackie O’s large, round sunglasses and the cat eye style worn by Marilyn Monroe that dominated the 1950s and 1960s. The 1970s was all about oversized frames (think Lynda Carter in “Wonder Woman”), while the 1990s trend was smaller with colorful tints. Tom Cruise’s “Risky Business” role made Wayfarers a popular look in the 1980s. And perhaps no pop culture figure has done more to promote sunglasses than Elton John, who probably has one of the largest and most eclectic collections. Elton John and his most fashionable glasses. Songs that have been written about sunglasses or that mention sunglasses include ZZ Top’s “Cheap Sunglasses,” Corey Hart’s “Sunglasses at Night,” and The Eagles song “Boys of Summer,” which mentions Wayfarers. And in film, sunglasses have had supporting roles in everything from “They Live” to “Men in Black,” not to mention giving so many characters memorable looks from “The Matrix” to “Scarface.” Sunglasses today: So many options With more awareness than ever before about the potential harm that can be done by the sun’s UV rays, sunglasses aren’t just a cool accessory, but a necessity – something the Inuit knew many centuries ago, even if they didn’t actually know about UV protection. Today, though, from babies to seniors, you’ll see people wearing sunglasses year-round. We even have a National Sunglasses Day celebrated annually on June 27 to raise awareness about how wearing shades can protect your eyes. Those who spend a significant amount of time outdoors or have a hard time with sun glare should invest in a good pair of sunglasses with polarized lenses that offer protection from both UVA and UVAB rays. Today, you also can find sunglasses that fit over prescription glasses, flip up or clip onto regular frames, sports sunglasses and more. Photochromic lenses are another option as they automatically darken outdoors and lighten again indoors. The good news is, with a range of retail options in store and online, you can find just about any style, shape, color and size sunglasses to fit your budget. Source: A Brief History of Sunglasses | Wikipedia - Sunglasses | History of Sunglasses
  29. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - WRESTLING Ancient Egyptian Wrestling Did you know... that wrestling and grappling sports have a long and complicated history, stretching into prehistoric times. Many traditional forms survive, grouped under the term folk wrestling. More formal systems have been codified in various forms of martial arts worldwide, where grappling techniques form a significant subset of unarmed fighting (complemented by striking techniques). (Wikipedia) History - December 21, 2019 | Eric Kiarie The first real traces of the development of wrestling date back to the times of the Sumerians, 5000 years ago. The Epic of Gilgamesh written in cuneiform, the sculptures and the low reliefs, are numerous sources that reveal the first refereed competitions, accompanied by music. There are also many historical and archaeological traces of wrestling in Ancient Egypt. Among them, it is worth mentioning in particular the drawings discovered in the tombs of Beni-Hassan representing 400 couples of wrestlers. These drawings, as well as many other vestiges, witness the existence of corporations of wrestlers in Ancient Egypt, wrestling rules and refereeing codes. Detail of the wrestling scenes in tomb 15. For the Greeks, wrestling was a science and a divine art, and it represented the most important training for young men. Athletes wrestled naked, with their bodies coated with olive oil and covered with a layer of very thin sand to protect the skin from sunlight or from cold during winter. The Wrestlers - Andre the Giant (1970s) After wrestling, they scraped this layer off with an instrument called strigil and washed themselves with water. Fights were similar to those of freestyle wrestling, as shown by drawings and inscriptions from that time. The competitor who first threw his opponent or first brought him down - either on his back, hips, chest, knees or elbows - was proclaimed the winner. During the Ancient Olympic Games, from 708 B.C., wrestling was the decisive discipline of the Pentathlon. In fact, it was the last discipline to be held – after the discus, the javelin, the long jump and the foot race – and it designated the winner of the Pentathlon, the only crowned athlete of the Games. The most famous of all wrestlers was Milon of Croton (student of the philosopher Pythagoras), six times Olympic champion (from 540 to 516 B.C.), ten times winner of the Isthmian Games, nine times winner of the Nemean Games, and five time winner of the Pythian Games. Legend has it that when he tried to splinter a tree with his own hands, his fingers got stuck in the split tree-trunk and he was devoured by a lion. Milo of Croton by Joseph-Benoît Suvée (18th century, oil on canvas), depicting Milo with his hand stuck in a trunk. Further Developments Wrestling in Roman Times was developed on the basis of the legacy of the Etruscans and the restoration of the Greek games. Wrestling was the favourite sport of young aristocrats, soldiers and shepherds. According to Cassius Dion, the palestra was at the origin of the military success of the Romans. In 393, Emperor Theodosius I prohibited all pagan games and outlawed the Olympic Games. Olympic Values sank into the dark Middle Ages, but they were always latent, without ceasing to exist. During Middle Ages and Renaissance, wrestling was practiced by the social elite, in castles and palaces. Numerous painters and writers celebrated wrestling and encouraged its practice : Caravaggio, Poussin, Rembrandt, Courbet, Rabelais, Rousseau, Montaigne, Locke, etc. It is also interesting to mention that the first book to be printed came out in 1500, and that already in 1512 came out the wrestling manual in color by German artist Albrecht Dürer. Page from Book The attempts made to restore the Olympic Games were numerous, but it was not until 1896 that they were re-established by Baron Pierre de Coubertin. After the creation of the International Olympic Committee in 1894, the development of new international sport federations and Olympic committees were accelerated. The first Olympic Congress took place in 1894 at « la Sorbonne » and decided of the ten sports that would be part of the Olympic program : athletics, wrestling, rowing, cycling, fencing, gymnastics, weightlifting, swimming, shooting and tennis (see the congress minutes). During the wrestling tournament in Athens, there were no weight categories and all five competitors wrestled under rules similar to those of the professional Greco-Roman wrestling. The matches lasted until one of the competitors won. It was allowed to interrupt and resume the matches on the following day. The first Olympic champion – the German athlete Schumann – who was not a trained wrestler, was also the winner of horse jumping and parallel bars. Wrestling at the 1896 Summer Olympics – Men's Greco-Roman Schuhmann (left) before the Olympic wrestling final, which he won (10–11 April) Schumann succeeded to beat the English weightlifting champion Launceston Elliot, who was heavier than him, by executing a quick and accurate body lock. In Paris, in 1900, and for this unique occasion in the history of the modern Olympic Games, the Games did not include wrestling in their program, even if at the same time, professional wrestling was at its best shape at the Folies Bergères and the Casino de Paris. Professional Wrestling Martin “Farmer” Burns – The Godfather of Pro Wrestling Professional wrestling began in France around 1830. Wrestlers who had no access to the wrestling elite, formed troupes that travelled around France showing their talent. Wrestlers thus frequented wild animals’ exhibitors, tightrope walkers and bearded women. Showmen presented wrestlers under names such as “Edward, the steel eater”, “Gustave d’Avignon, the bone wrecker”, or “Bonnet, the ox of the low Alps” and challenged the public to knock them down for 500 francs. In 1848, French showman Jean Exbroyat created the first modern wrestlers’ circus troupe and established as a rule not to execute holds below the waist. He named this new style « flat hand wrestling ». Upon Mr. Exbroyat’s death in 1872, Mr. Rossignol-Rollin attorney from Lyon assumed the direction of this troupe and was soon noticed for his ability to advertise, to « arrange » matches and to reward wrestlers in the name of the audience. The French influence extended to the Austrian Hungarian Empire, to Italy, to Denmark and to Russia and the new style circulated under the name of Greco-Roman wrestling, classic wrestling or French wrestling. Professional wrestling matches were thus organized everywhere in Europe with variable programs and competition rules according to the taste of wrestlers, of managers and of the audience. In 1898, the Frenchman Paul Pons, also named “the Colossus”, was the first Professional World Champion just before the Polish Ladislaus Pytlasinski. Paul Pons Some other great champions succeeded him, like the Turkish Kara Ahmed (the eastern Monster), the Bulgarian Nikola Petrov (the lion of the Balkans) or the Russian Ivan Poddubny (the Champion of Champions). At the end of the 19th century, professional wrestling was the most in vogue sport in Europe, but it started to degrade from 1900 because of the pre-arranged matches, the announcement of forgery, false victories and false nationalities of the competitors. The rediscovery of Olympic amateurism encouraged the creation of numerous clubs and schools that finished professional wrestling off. However, from a historical point of view, professional wrestling has its indisputable merits. Competitions contributed to making wrestling more popular, the physical aspect of wrestlers served as a model to young men and the training system allowed amateur wrestling clubs to rapidly become more structured. Modern Olympic Wrestling Wrestling at the 1904 Summer Olympics In 1904, freestyle wrestling was first introduced during the St. Louis Games and was only disputed by American wrestlers. It was only during the fourth Olympic Games held in London in 1908 that competitions were organized for both styles. At the Stockholm Olympic Games in 1912, freestyle wrestling was again absent from the program and glima competitions (Icelandic wrestling) were organized. Wrestling matches took place on three mats in the open air. They lasted one hour, but finalists wrestled without limit of time. The match which confronted the Finnish wrestler Alfred Johan Asikainen and the Russian Martin Klein lasted 11 hours and 40 minutes and appears on the Guinness Book of Records. Both wrestlers, having the same score, were separated by two periods of three minutes of ground wrestling. Asikainen (right, in black) and Klein wrestling at the 1912 Olympics The Russian finally defeated the Finnish who weighed 8 kilos (17.64 lbs) more than he did. Exhausted by this match, Martin Klein could not beat the Swedish Johansson who won the gold medal for the 75 kilos (165.35 lbs). From this date, and encouraged by the newly created International Federation, wrestling developed in every country. Northern Europe countries maintained during many years the monopoly of Greco-Roman wrestling, whereas freestyle wrestling was largely dominated by the English and the Americans. In Amsterdam, in 1928, the Egyptian wrestler Ibrahim Mustafa was the first African wrestler to win an Olympic title. The Japanese Shohachi Ishii won the first Asian title at the Olympic Games in Helsinki, in 1952. Numerous legends shaped the history of wrestling around the world and it would be impossible to name them all. However, four wrestlers have deeply changed the history of Modern Olympic Games by winning three Olympic titles : the Swedish Carl Westergren (Greco-roman wrestling in 1920, 1924 and 1932), the Swedish Ivar Johansson (Greco-roman and freestyle wrestling in 1932, and freestyle wrestling in 1936), the Russian Alekandr Medved (freestyle wrestling in 1964, 1968 and in 1972) and the Russian Aleksandr Karelin (in 1988, 1992 and 1996). After obtaining his third title, Aleksandr Karelin decided to conquer his fourth title at the Olympic Games in Sydney in 2000, but to the general surprise, he was beaten by the American wrestler Rulon Gardner. Gardner's win over Russian Alexander Karelin "shocked the wrestling world." After defeating Karelin, who was previously undefeated in 13 years, he became a local hero in his hometown of Afton, Wyoming. In 2002, during the World Championship held in Moscow, FILA awarded the title of Best Wrestler of the Century to both Russians : Aleksandr Medved (for freestyle wrestling) and Aleksandr Karelin (for Greco-roman wrestling), offering them the FILA Gold necklace, award generally reserved for heads of state. A hundred years after the introduction of freestyle wrestling in the Olympic program, worldwide wrestling entered a new era with the acknowledgement of female wrestling as an Olympic discipline on the occasion of the Athens Games in 2004. This decision is part of the policy of the IOC that aims at establishing equality in sport, and legitimized the efforts made by FILA to sustain the development of female wrestling since the end of the 80s. Source: Wikipedia - History of Wrestling | Origins and History of Wrestling
  30. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - BARD Did you know... that in Celtic cultures, a bard was a professional storyteller, verse-maker, music composer, oral historian and genealogist, employed by a patron to commemorate one or more of the patron's ancestors and to praise the patron's own activities? Originally bards were a specific lower class of poet, contrasting with the higher rank known as fili in Ireland and Highland Scotland. With the decline of a living bardic tradition in the modern period, the term has loosened to mean a generic minstrel or author (especially a famous one). For example, William Shakespeare and Rabindranath Tagore are respectively known as "the Bard of Avon" (often simply "the Bard") and "the Bard of Bengal". (Wikipedia) Bards were probably a social class in Celtic Europe. They were poets or singers. Most likely they were in the service of Celtic nobility. They were probably employed to tell about how good their master (the nobleman) was, or to sing about what he did. Today, it is not quite clear what the difference was from a druid. Early Roman scholars used the word vates to refer to all of them. Vates has been translated as prophet or soothsayer. It is also a common school in the North East Pacific West. In modern English, the nouns vates and ovate are used as technical terms for ancient Celtic bards, prophets and philosophers. In medieval Gaelic and Welsh society, a bard (Scottish and Irish Gaelic) or bardd (Welsh) was a professional poet, employed to compose eulogies for his lord. If the employer failed to pay the proper amount, the bard would then compose a satire (c.f. fili, fáith). In other Indo-European societies, the same function was fulfilled by skalds, rhapsodes, minstrels and scops, among others. A hereditary caste of professional poets in Proto-Indo-European society has been reconstructed by comparison of the position of poets in medieval Ireland and in ancient India in particular. Bards (who are not the same as the Irish 'filidh' or 'fili') were those who sang the songs recalling the tribal warriors' deeds of bravery as well as the genealogies and family histories of the ruling strata among Celtic societies. The pre-Christian Celtic peoples recorded no written histories; however, Celtic peoples did maintain an intricate oral history committed to memory and transmitted by bards and filid. Bards facilitated the memorisation of such materials by the use of metre, rhyme and other formulaic poetic devices. One of the most notable bards in Irish mythology was Amergin Glúingel, a bard, druid and judge for the Milesians. Ireland In medieval Ireland, bards were one of two distinct groups of poets, the other being the fili. According to the Early Irish law text on status, Uraicecht Becc, bards were a lesser class of poets, not eligible for higher poetic roles as described above. However, it has also been argued that the distinction between filid (pl. of fili) and bards was a creation of Christian Ireland, and that the filid were more associated with the church. By the Early Modern Period, these names came to be used interchangeably. Irish bards formed a professional hereditary caste of highly trained, learned poets. The bards were steeped in the history and traditions of clan and country, as well as in the technical requirements of a verse technique that was syllabic and used assonance, half rhyme and alliteration, among other conventions. As officials of the court of king or chieftain, they performed a number of official roles. They were chroniclers and satirists whose job it was to praise their employers and damn those who crossed them. It was believed that a well-aimed bardic satire, glam dicenn, could raise boils on the face of its target. The bardic system lasted until the mid-17th century in Ireland and the early 18th century in Scotland. In Ireland, their fortunes had always been linked to the Gaelic aristocracy, which declined along with them during the Tudor Reconquest. The early history of the bards can be known only indirectly through mythological stories. The first mention of the bardic profession in Ireland is found in the Book of Invasions, in a story about the Irish colony of Tuatha De Danann (Peoples of Goddess Danu), also called Danonians. They became the aos sí (folk of the mound), comparable to Norse alfr and British fairy. During the tenth year of the reign of the last Belgic monarch, the people of the colony of Tuatha De Danann, as the Irish called it, invaded and settled in Ireland. They were divided into three tribes—the tribe of Tuatha who were the nobility, the tribe of De who were the priests (those devoted to serving God or De) and the tribe of Danann, who were the bards. This account of the Tuatha De Danann must be considered legendary; however the story was an integral part of the oral history of Irish bards themselves. Scotland The best-known group of bards in Scotland were the members of the MacMhuirich family, who flourished from the 15th to the 18th centuries. The family was centred in the Hebrides, and claimed descent from a 13th-century Irish bard who, according to legend, was exiled to Scotland. The family was at first chiefly employed by the Lords of the Isles as poets, lawyers, and physicians. With the fall of the Lordship of the Isles in the 15th century, the family was chiefly employed by the chiefs of the MacDonalds of Clanranald. Members of the family were also recorded as musicians in the early 16th century, and as clergymen possibly as early as the early 15th century. The last of the family to practise classical Gaelic poetry was Domhnall MacMhuirich, who lived on South Uist in the 18th century. In Gaelic-speaking areas, a village bard or village poet (Scottish Gaelic: bàrd-baile) is a local poet who composes works in a traditional style relating to that community. Notable village bards include Dòmhnall Ruadh Chorùna and Dòmhnall Ruadh Phàislig [gd]. Wales A number of bards in Welsh mythology have been preserved in medieval Welsh literature such as the Red Book of Hergest, the White Book of Rhydderch, the Book of Aneirin and the Book of Taliesin. The bards Aneirin and Taliesin may be legendary reflections of historical bards active in the 6th and 7th centuries. Very little historical information about Dark Age Welsh court tradition survives, but the Middle Welsh material came to be the nucleus of the Matter of Britain and Arthurian legend as they developed from the 13th century. The (Welsh) Laws of Hywel Dda, originally compiled around 900, identify a bard as a member of a king's household. His duties, when the bodyguard were sharing out booty, included the singing of the sovereignty of Britain—possibly why the genealogies of the British high kings survived into the written historical record. The royal form of bardic tradition ceased in the 13th century, when the 1282 Edwardian conquest permanently ended the rule of the Welsh princes. The legendary suicide of The Last Bard (c. 1283), was commemorated in the poem The Bards of Wales by the Hungarian poet János Arany in 1857, as a way of encoded resistance to the suppressive politics of his own time. However, the poetic and musical traditions were continued throughout the Middle Ages, e.g., by noted 14th-century poets Dafydd ap Gwilym and Iolo Goch. The tradition of regularly assembling bards at an eisteddfod never lapsed, and was strengthened by formation of the Gorsedd by Iolo Morganwg in 1792, establishing Wales as the major Celtic upholder of bardic tradition in the 21st century. Many regular eisteddfodau are held in Wales, including the National Eisteddfod of Wales (Eisteddfod Genedlaethol Cymru), which was instituted in 1861 and has been held annually since 1880. Many Welsh schools conduct their own annual versions at which bardic traditions are emulated Taliesin Source: Wikipedia - Bard
  31. 1 point
    What's the Word? - ORGANZA pronunciation: [or-GAN-zə] Part of speech: noun Origin: French, early 19th century Meaning: 1. A thin, stiff, transparent fabric made of silk or a synthetic yarn. Example: "I need to buy four yards of organza to make my daughter's prom dress." "The thrift store was overflowing with organza dresses." About Organza This fashionable term comes from French, naturellement. In the late 16th century, English adopted "organza" to describe the stiff, transparent, silk fabric that was used to make elaborate ballgowns. Did you Know? Today you're more likely to find organza made of a synthetic material, but the original fabric was made of silk. Organzine is silk thread that is twisted together with each fiber in a contrary direction. Organzine is woven together to make organza. The methods for making the thread and fabric produce a fine, transparent, but still stiff, product.
  32. 1 point
    I'd be nice to live in a nation not run by idiots. :/
  33. 1 point
    The zombie apocalypse series based on Robert Kirkman’s comics is coming to an end in 2022 with an expanded 11th season. However, fans of the once highest rated show on the small screen shouldn’t fret too much at the loss of the mother show. AMC has already given the go-ahead to a new TWD spinoff starring fan favorites Norman Reedus and Melissa McBride in their roles as Daryl Dixon and Carol Peletier. Created by TWD showrunner Angela Kang and Deadverse chief content officer Scott M. Gimple, that as yet untitled series is scheduled to debut in 2023. As was announced at this year’s coronavirus induced virtual Comic-Con, the pandemic delayed TWD Season 10 finale will now air as a special episode on October 4 with 10 additional episodes to air in 2021 for the current cycle. Tearing a page out of the playbook that AMC used for the end of Mad Men and Breaking Bad, the 11th and final season of the once blockbuster TWD will run over two-years for a grand total of 24 episodes. “It’s been ten years ‘gone bye;’ what lies ahead are two more to come and stories and stories to tell beyond that,” said Gimple of the show that debuted on Halloween 2010. “I look forward to digging in with our brilliant writers, producers, directors, cast and crew to bring this epic final chapter of Robert Kirkman’s story to life for our fans over the next two years,” said Kang, who took over as TWD showrunner from Gimple at the start of Season 9. “The Walking Dead flagship series has been my creative home for a decade and so it’s bittersweet to bring it to an end, but I could not be more excited to be working with Scott Gimple and AMC to develop a new series for Daryl and Carol,” the EP added. “Working with Norman Reedus and Melissa McBride has been a highlight of my career and I’m thrilled that we get to keep telling stories together.” In addition to the upcoming Daryl and Carol series current spinoffs Fear the Walking Dead, starting its sixth season on October 11, and the October 4th premiering YA two-season long The Walking Dead: World Beyond, AMC and Gimple are developing a Tales of The Walking Dead anthology series. Episodic in format, Tales will likely focus on individual characters from the clearly expanding Deadverse, both new and old. More TWD shows are in various stages of discussion too, I hear, though no indication that a Negan or Maggie Rheee series is one of them. Having exited TWD in 2018 for the broadcast network heights of ABC’s short lived Whiskey Cavalier, Lauren Cohan is returning as Maggie to TWD for the remainder of the Kirkman and Gale Anne Hurd EP’d show’s 10th and probably 11th season. The Jeffrey Dean Morgan portrayed Negan has shifted this current season from his murderous villain role to more of an elder statesman of the Survivors, a ripe move to a spinoff of his own perhaps. It is worth noting that besides a recently published Negan solo comic, Morgan and spouse Hilarie Burton hosted the TWD cast heavy six-episode virtual talkshow Friday Night in with the Morgans this summer on AMC. Plus, with all that, there are still the trio of Rick Grimes big screen adventures, starring Andrew Lincoln, which are in the script stage at Universal. In many ways, even as the series continues to be the biggest thing on AMC, the conclusion of TWD proper makes sense. For one thing, off-screen Kirkman suddenly wrapped up the TWD comics after 193 issues in 2019. On-screen, leading man Lincoln left two years ago and now Marvel Universe regular Danai Gurira headed off stage, so to speak, in March of this year. While the door was never fully closed on Gurira’s Michonne character, who went looking for Grimes after the wounded one-time Sheriff’s Deputy was spirited off by a mysterious helicopter in the fifth episode of Season 9, it seemed pretty clear that the focus of the series had shifted to CAA repped Reedus and UTA repped McBride’s characters – even more so with both actors inking lucrative new contracts in recent years. On another level, TWD will be heading into its final stretch as AMC finally heads to trial in April 2021 against show creator and original showrunner Frank Darabont and CAA in the latter’s 2013 launched $300 million profit participation lawsuit against the cabler. While that COVID-19 postponed trial inches closer, AMC scored a big legal win earlier this summer in another profit participation dust-up with Kirkman and other TWD EPs. After a mini-trial in March, LA Superior Court Judge Daniel Buckley determined on July 22 that if Kirkman didn’t like the “plain language” deal he inked years ago and the resulting Modified Adjusted Gross Receipts and imputed license fees, that was his problem, not AMC’s. No appeal has been filed yet in that case, which moves on to another phase dealing with other non-contract issues in the next few months – which is a whole other type of anthology series of its own.
  34. 1 point
    https://www.epicgames.com/store/en-US/product/railway-empire/home Railway Empire is currently free on Epic Games Store. https://www.epicgames.com/store/en-US/product/where-the-water-tastes-like-wine/home Where the Water Tastes Like Wine is currently free on Epic Games Store. https://freebies.indiegala.com/to-ash To Ash is currently free on IndieGala.
  35. 1 point
    What's the Word? - MICROCLIMATE pronunciation: [MY-kro-kli-mət] Part of speech: noun Origin: International Scientific Vocabulary, 1918 Meaning: 1. The climate of a very small or restricted area, especially when this differs from the climate of the surrounding area. Example: "My microclimate gets plenty of sun in the afternoon, even when it's raining just a few streets over." "The waterfall produces a very lush microclimate full of vegetation." About Microclimate It's a pretty self-explanatory term — microclimate means the weather in a small area. These mini weather patterns exist because of both manmade and natural influences that change the wind, precipitation, or other weather elements. Did you Know? Due to the steep changes in elevation and the effects of the San Francisco Bay and Pacific Ocean, the weather of San Francisco can be changeable. When it's sunny in one neighborhood, it may be cold and foggy less than one mile away. The locals have even nicknamed the thick fog that rolls across the city Karl, a reference to the giant some were afraid of in the movie "Big Fish."
  36. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - D-DAY Men of the 16th Infantry Regiment, US 1st Infantry Division wading ashore on Omaha Beach on the morning of 6 June 1944. Did you know.. that The Normandy landings were the landing operations and associated airborne operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II. Codenamed Operation Neptune and often referred to as D-Day, it was the largest seaborne invasion in history. The operation began the liberation of German-occupied France (and later western Europe) and laid the foundations of the Allied victory on the Western Front. (Wikipedia) The legacy of D-Day resonates through history: It was the largest-ever amphibious military invasion. Allied forces faced rough weather and fierce German gunfire as they stormed Normandy’s coast. Despite tough odds and high casualties, Allied forces ultimately won the battle and helped turn the tide of World War II toward victory against Hitler’s forces. But there are some aspects from D-Day that may not be as well known. Among them: Hitler’s miscalculations, a hero medic who has still not received official recognition, and the horror faced by a 19-year-old coastguardsman as he followed a tough command. Here are some lesser-known stories about the invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944. 1. Eisenhower threatened to quit just months before D-Day. Winston Churchill and Dwight D. Eisenhower Just a few months before the D-Day invasion, Supreme Allied Commander Dwight D. Eisenhower and English Prime Minister Winston Churchill were at odds over a controversial plan. Eisenhower wanted to divert Allied strategic bombers that had been hammering German industrial plants to instead begin bombing critical French infrastructure. For Eisenhower, the switch in bombing seemed like a no-brainer. But others, including Churchill and Arthur “Bomber” Harris, head of the Royal Air Force’s strategic bomber command, didn’t see it that way. Harris saw the plan as a waste of resources, while Churchill was concerned about collateral damage to France—an important ally. Facing this opposition, Eisenhower threatened to step down from his position. The move worked, the bombing plan went ahead and, historians argue, Eisenhower showed the depth of his dedication to making D-Day a successful operation and defeating the Nazis. 2. Hitler thought he was ready–but Nazi defenses were focused in the wrong place. Adolf Hitler arriving at the Berlin Sportpalast, being greeted by Nazi salutes, circa 1940. As early as 1942, Adolf Hitler knew that a large-scale Allied invasion of France could turn the tide of the war in Europe. But thanks in large part to a brilliant Allied deception campaign and Hitler’s fanatical grip on Nazi military decisions, the D-Day invasion of June 6, 1944 became precisely the turning point that the Germans most feared. In 1942 Germany began construction on the Atlantic Wall, a 2,400-mile network of bunkers, pillboxes, mines and landing obstacles up and down the French coastline. But without the money and manpower to install a continuous line of defense, the Nazis focused on established ports. The top candidate for an Allied invasion was believed to be the French port city of Calais, where the Germans installed three massive gun batteries. Meanwhile, the rest of the French coastline—including the northern beaches of Normandy—was less fiercely defended. What’s more, if Hitler had listened to his Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, matters might have been worse for the Allies landing at Normandy. 3. Key early parts of the invasion did not go to plan. Medics give a blood transfusion to an injured man on Omaha Beach during D-Day. The strategy on D-Day was to prepare the beaches for incoming Allied troops by heavily bombing Nazi gun positions at the coast and destroying key bridges and roads to cut off Germany’s retreat and reinforcements. The paratroopers were to then drop in to secure inland positions ahead of the land invasion. But almost nothing went exactly as planned on June 6, 1944. In the end, partly due to poor weather and visibility, bombers failed to take out key artillery, particularly at Omaha Beach. Many paratroopers were dropped far off their marks and became vulnerable to German snipers. And during the land invasion, a critical fleet of marine tanks sunk in stormy seas and failed to make it ashore. Despite the setbacks, Allied troops pushed through and by pure grit, got the job done. Explore how D-Day unfolded. 4. Ramps on Allied landing crafts acted as shields—until they were dropped. U.S. Army infantry men are amongst the first to attack the German defenses on Omaha Beach. D-Day veteran Frank DeVita says he’ll never forget how tough it was to be the man in charge of dropping the ramp as his landing craft approached Omaha Beach. “This was our shield as long as it was up. And as we approached the shoreline where the water hits the sand, and the machine guns were hitting the front of the boat—it was like a typewriter,” DeVita, who was barely 19 on June 6, 1944, remembers. When he was ordered to drop the ramp, he paused. “I figured in my mind when I drop that damn ramp, the bullets that are hitting the ramp are going to come into the boat. So I froze.” But then the coxswain again yelled at DeVita to lower the ramp, and he followed the order. “I dropped the ramp,” he said. “And the first 7, 8, 9, 10 guys went down like you were cutting down wheat…They were kids.” Click here to listen to Frank Devita's account of landing on Omaha Beach on D-Day. 5. Among the heroes on Omaha Beach was a black combat medic who treated more than 200 men. WAVERLY B. WOODSON, JR. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery where American buries its heroes. Heavy machine-gun fire greeted a nauseous and bloody Waverly B. Woodson, Jr. as he disembarked onto Omaha Beach on June 6, 1944. A German shell had just blasted apart his landing craft, killing the man next to him and peppering him with so much shrapnel that he initially believed he, too, was dying. But Woodson, a medic with the lone African-American combat unit to fight on D-Day, managed to set up a medical aid station. For the next 30 hours, he removed bullets, dispensed blood plasma, cleaned wounds, reset broken bones and at one point amputated a foot. He also saved four men from drowning. After the battle, Woodson was highly commended, but never received a medal. Though Woodson died in 2005, his family has been pushing the Army to award him a Medal of Honor posthumously. 6. Historians are still calculating how many died on D-Day American cemetery of the Normandy landings, located near Omaha beach. In planning the D-Day attack, Allied military leaders knew that casualties might be staggeringly high, but it was a cost they were willing to pay in order to establish an infantry stronghold in France. Days before the invasion, General Dwight D. Eisenhower was told by a top strategist that paratrooper casualties alone could be as high as 75 percent. The casualties were staggeringly high on D-Day—but how high? When a memorial was first being planned in the late 1990s, there were wildly different estimates for Allied D-Day fatalities ranging from 5,000 to 12,000. Military records clearly showed that thousands of troops perished during the initial phases of the months-long Normandy Campaign, but it wasn’t clear when many of the troops were actually killed. Historians estimate there were 4,414 Allied deaths on June 6, including 2,501 Americans. But they also know that list isn’t complete and the project to count the dead continues. 7. Allied troops won more than a military victory on D-Day. D-Day’s hard-fought battles not only led to the beginning of the end of the war, the men who fought in the invasion forever changed people’s lives—and influenced the perception of the soldier—as savior—for at least one young boy. French businessman Bernard Marie was 5 years old and living in Normandy on June 6, 1944. He remembers before the Allied invasion, he and his friends could not go out and play on the beaches because “Mother couldn’t trust anybody. So, for me, everybody wearing a uniform was a bad guy. “ On D-Day, as sirens wailed over their town starting at 2 a.m., Marie retreated to the basement with his grandfather to take shelter. “My grandfather put his hands on my ears because there was a lot of noise. It was nonstop. And we stayed there 15 hours. We were so afraid.” At 5 pm, Marie recalls, the shooting was done. Then he heard his mother outside yelling, so he and his grandfather ran upstairs to follow her. “I will never forget,” Marie says, “She was hugging a soldier! I could not understand that. For me it was a bad guy. So she called me to come and said, 'These soldiers are good, they’ve come to save us.'” To this day, Marie is grateful to that soldier—and to all the veterans who fought to liberate France from the Nazis. “The most important thing for any human being is freedom,” he says. “We cannot forget the 6th of June.” Source: Wikipedia - Normandy Landings (D-Day) | History - D-Day Surprising Facts
  37. 1 point
    What's the Word? - HELICOID pronunciation: [HEL-ə-koyd] Part of speech: noun Origin: Greek, late 17th century Meaning: 1. An object of spiral or helical shape 2. A surface formed by simultaneously moving a straight line along an axis and rotating it around it (like a screw thread). Example: "The helicoid staircase was the focal point of the ballroom." "I always got the helicoid measurements wrong on my geometry homework." About Helicoid The thread on a screw is a perfect example of a helicoid. It's a shape formed by moving a straight line along an axis as it turns. You can find manmade helicoid structures like a spiral staircase, or you can find many examples of helicoids in the natural world. Did you Know? Visit the Guggenheim Museum in Manhattan and you will find yourself inside a helicoid. The works of art are on display in galleries that shoot off a massive spiral-shaped ramp. You can view the helicoid from either the inside or outside of the Guggenheim.
  38. 1 point
    https://store.steampowered.com/app/266310/GameGuru/ GameGuru is currently free on Steam. https://store.steampowered.com/app/496580/GameGuru__Expansion_Pack/ The GameGuru Expansion Pack is also currently free on Steam. https://store.steampowered.com/app/1397220/Patricia/ Patricia is free on Steam.
  39. 1 point
    What's the Word? - APIARY pronunciation: [AY-ee-er-ee] Part of speech: noun Origin: Latin, 17th century Meaning: 1. A place where bees are kept. 2. A collection of beehives. Example: "The apiary was less than a mile away from a rose garden, which gave the honey a floral aroma." "It takes a full day to inspect and maintain my apiary." About Apiary An apiary can be as simple as a box in your backyard, although beekeeping is not simple. Anywhere that bees are kept, or a collection of hives, can be called an apiary. It comes from the Latin word for bee, "apis." In the 17th century it was called an apiarium, but today it's just apiary. Did you Know? A professional beekeeper might call their collection of hives an apiary. But apiary is just a fancier word for a place where bees live.
  40. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - MUSKRATS Muskrats typically make their homes in marshes, swamps and wetlands. Did you know... that the muskrat, the only species in genus Ondatra and tribe ondatrini, is a medium-sized semiaquatic rodent native to North America and an introduced species in parts of Europe, Asia, and South America. The muskrat is found in wetlands over a wide range of climates and habitats. It has important effects on the ecology of wetlands, and is a resource of food and fur for humans. The muskrat is the largest species in the subfamily Arvicolinae, which includes 142 other species of rodents, mostly voles and lemmings. Muskrats are referred to as "rats" in a general sense because they are medium-sized rodents with an adaptable lifestyle and an omnivorous diet. They are not, however, members of the genus Rattus. (Wikipedia) Size Muskrats are around the size of large rats. They grow from 16 to 25 inches (41 to 63.5 centimeters) long and weigh around 1.5 to 4 lbs. (0.7 to 2 kilograms). Their tails add another 7 to 11 inches (18 to 28 cm) to their length, according to the Missouri Department of Conservation. Habitat Muskrat Habitat The muskrat is native to North America. In the early 20th century, though, the animal was introduced to northern Eurasia, according to the Animal Diversity Web (ADW). They are now found in Ukraine, Russia, adjacent areas of China and Mongolia and the Honshu Island in Japan. Muskrats like wetter areas with at least 4 to 6 inches (10 to 15 cm) of water. They typically make their homes in marshes, swamps and wetlands. They particularly like marshes. Hot, dry weather is bad for muskrats, which is why they prefer wet areas and cool burrows dug on the banks of water sources. They even have a special mechanism, called regional heterothermy. Regional heterothermy regulates the flow of blood to the feet and tail. This keeps them cooler than the body's core. In addition to burrows, muskrats also build lodges out of cattails and other vegetation. These lodges can sometimes clog up waterways, making them a nuisance to humans. Cattails Habits Muskrats are very social and live in large, territorial families, according to the ADW. They communicate with others and mark their territory with a secretion from their glands called musk. The scent serves as a warning to intruders. Muskrats are considered nocturnal, though they are sometimes active during the day. Their most active times are late afternoon and right after dusk. Diet Muskrats aren't picky. In fact, they will even resort to cannibalism in their own family, according to the ADW. Mostly though, they tend to prefer vegetation like cattails, waterlilies, roots and pondweed. They also eat snails, mussels, salamanders, crustaceans, fish and young birds. These small animals are very big eaters. Muskrats eat one-third of their weight every day, according to the ADW. Though they need a large supply of food, muskrats usually don't travel any farther than 150 feet (46 meters) away from their homes. Offspring Muskrats make their nests on tree stumps sticking out of 15 to 40 inches (38 to 102 cm) of water using vegetation. Females have a gestation period of three to four weeks and give birth to three to eight young, according to Encyclopedia Britannica. They can have up to three litters each year. Baby muskrats are called kits. At 30 days old, kits can swim, dive and feed themselves. Kits are fully grown at six weeks and typically stay with their family, unless there is overcrowding. In this case, the mother will often kick the young out of the group. These creatures can live around three years in the wild and up to 10 years in captivity. Classification/taxonomy Here is the taxonomy for muskrats, according to the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS): Kingdom: Animalia Subkingdom: Bilateria Infrakingdom: Deuterostomia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Infraphylum: Gnathostomata Superclass: Tetrapoda Class: Mammalia Subclass: Theria Infraclass: Eutheria Order: Rodentia Suborder: Myomorpha Superfamily: Muroidea Family: Cricetidae Subfamily: Arvicolinae Genus: Ondatra Direct children Species: Ondatra zibethicus Conservation status Muskrats are listed as least concern on the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List of Threatened Species. This means that their populations are generally stable and widespread. Though thought of as pests because they sometimes eat crops and block waterways with their lodges, muskrats are very helpful. By eating aquatic plants, they open other areas of the waterways, giving ducks and other birds clear places to swim. Their lodges are also used by other animals as resting areas and nests. Goose resting on Muskrat lodge Other facts The muskrat's dense fur traps air to keep them warm. It also helps them float in water. Though not great on land, muskrats are fantastic swimmers. They can hold their breath underwater for 12 to 17 minutes, according to the ADW. They can swim up to about 3 mph (5 km/h) thanks to their paddle-like webbed feet. Muskrats can even swim backward. Additional resources Department of Energy and Environmental Protection: Muskrat Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife: Muskrats New Hampshire Public Television: Common Muskrat Source: Wikipedia - Muskrat | LiveScience - Muskrat Facts
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    Fact of the Day - MUMMIES Did you know... that a mummy is a dead human or an animal whose soft tissues and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions. (Wikipedia) The afterlife was an important part of Ancient Egyptian culture. One of the ways they prepared for the afterlife was to try and preserve the body as long as possible. They did this through a process called embalming. These embalmed bodies are called mummies. Simplistic representation of the Ancient Egyptian mummification process. Next up are 9 surprising facts about mummies. 1. The practice didn't start in Egypt. According to reports from Public Radio International, an ancient South American culture known as the Chinchorro were the first to mummify their deceased loved ones 2,000 years before Egyptians formed their own technique. 2. The Egyptian Process Took 70 Days. The Smithsonian Institute explains how a special priest would perform the ritual by reciting prayers throughout the process, starting by removing all of the internal organs. They saved those to either be placed in jars around the body or later, embalm and replace them back inside. They would then use a type of salt called “natron” to remove all the moisture from the body. After making the deceased appear as lifelike as possible by filling in sunken areas with linen and adding fake eyes, they would begin wrapping them with hundreds of yards of linen. Resin was used between the layers of cloth to keep it secure. 3. They Left The Heart In Place. Despite removing every other organ, the Smithsonian Institute also revealed that ancient Egyptians would never remove the deceased’s heart as they believed it to be the “center of a person’s being and intelligence.” 4. Egyptians Mummified Animals, Too. Archaeologists uncovered more than a few critters entombed beside human remain — millions of them, in fact. The History Channel claims that “researchers believe [they] produced more than 70 million animal mummies between 800 BC and 400 AD.” This included cats, birds, cows, frogs, baboons, and countless other creatures who were either personal pets of the deceased or intended as offering or protection for them in the afterlife. 5. They Only Weighed A Few Pounds. When unwrapped, a typical mummy would weight just about five pounds, according to EgyptAbout.com. 6. Mouths Were Often Left Open. In fact, the British Museum explains how there was a whole ritual known as an “opening of the mouth ceremony.” This required a special tool and was done so the deceased could eat, drink, breathe, and speak in the afterlife, per their beliefs. 7. Mummification Was A Lucrative Business. The highly skilled Egyptian embalmers were paid well for their careful work. According to reports from NPR, they even formed trade unions to protect their personal techniques. 8. Remains Were Used In Medicine In The Middle Ages. The Smithsonian Magazine revealed the troubling special ingredient many medieval Europeans believed helped cure whatever might ail them: mummy flesh. Grave robbers would travel back from Egypt with remains and sell them to everyone from royals to regular civilians for a pretty penny. Essentially, they were treating any ache or pain by cannibalizing ancient humans. 9. Victorians Held "Unwrapping" Parties. Known as “mummy unrollings,” Atlas Obscura explains how folks would gather in the 1800s at the height of “Egyptomania” to watch as their host would slowly reveal a mummy underneath the layers of ancient linen. Source: Wikipedia - Mummy | Ancient Egypt - Mummies | LittleThings - Ancient Mummies
  42. 1 point
    What's the Word? - MAUNDER pronunciation: [MAWN-dər] Part of speech: verb Origin: Unknown, early 17th century Meaning: 1. Talk in a rambling manner. 2. Move or act in a dreamy or idle manner. Example: "Don't get him started on his favorite movies, or he will maunder forever." "The blooming trees inspired me to maunder all afternoon in the garden." About Maunder They're not etymologically related, but maunder and meander have similar spellings and meanings. To meander means to wander at random, and maunder means to speak in a rambling way. Did you Know? Sometimes a word doesn't have a traceable origin. It had to come from somewhere, but we just can't pin it down. Maunder is such a word. There used to be a word, maunder, that meant to beg, but that definition dropped away. Today's maunder concerns how you speak or move about.
  43. 1 point
    What's the Word? - FAIN pronunciation: [feyn] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Old English, pre-12th century Meaning: 1. Pleased or willing under the circumstances. 2. Compelled by the circumstances; obliged. Example: "I was fain to continue with the online book club." "He was fain to answer the questions or risk a failing grade." About Fain If doing something wasn't your idea, but you're happy to do it, the adjective for that is "fain." There's usually some kind of extenuating circumstances surrounding the activity, but you'll get the job done any way. Did you Know? Fain is an Old English word that doesn't have a lot of modern context, but it is related to the verb "fawn." They both come from the Germanic word "fægen," meaing to be happy or pleased. Today "fawn" is obsequious adoration, while fain describes a willingness or obligation.
  44. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - COPPER Did you know... that copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. (Wikipedia) The oldest metal object found in the Middle East consists of copper; it was a tiny awl dating back as far as 5100 B.C. And the U.S. penny was originally made of pure copper (although, nowadays, it is 97.5 percent zinc with a thin copper skin). Copper ranks as the third-most-consumed industrial metal in the world, after iron and aluminum, according to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). About three-quarters of that copper goes to make electrical wires, telecommunication cables and electronics. Aside from gold, copper is the only metal on the periodic table whose coloring isn't naturally silver or gray. Chemical description Atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus): 29 Atomic symbol (on the periodic table of elements): Cu Atomic weight (average mass of the atom): 63.55 Density: 8.92 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at room temperature: solid Melting point: 1,984.32 degrees Fahrenheit (1,084.62 degrees Celsius) Boiling point: 5,301 degrees F (2,927 degrees C) Number of isotopes (atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons): 35; 2 stable Most common isotopes: Cu-63 (69.15 percent natural abundance) and Cu-65 (30.85 percent natural abundance) History and characteristics Most copper occurs in ores and must be smelted, or extracted from its ore, for purity before it can be used. But natural chemical reactions can sometimes release native copper, according to the chemistry database site, Chemicool. Humans have been making things from copper for at least 8,000 years and figured out how to smelt the metal by about 4500 B.C. The next technological leap was creating copper alloys by adding tin to copper, which created a harder metal than its individual parts: bronze. The technological development ushered in the Bronze Age, a period covering approximately 3300 to 1200 B.C, and is distinguished by the use of bronze tools and weapons, according to History. Archaeologists unearth a Bronze Age warrior's personal toolkit. Copper artifacts are sprinkled throughout the historical record. Archaeologists discovered a tiny awl, or pointed tool, dating to 5100 B.C., that was buried with a middle-age woman in an ancient village in Israel. The awl represents the oldest metal object ever found in the Middle East. The copper probably came from the Caucasus region, located in the mountainous region covering southeastern Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia more than 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) away, according to 2014 article published in PLOS ONE. In ancient Egypt, people used copper alloys to make jewelry, including toe rings. Researchers have also found massive copper mines from the 10th century B.C. in Israel. About two-thirds of the copper on Earth is found in igneous (volcanic) rocks, and about one-quarter occurs in sedimentary rocks, according to the USGS. The metal is ductile and malleable, and conducts heat and electricity well — reasons why copper is widely used in electronics and wiring. Copper turns green because of an oxidation reaction; that is, it loses electrons when it's exposed to water and air. The resulting copper oxide is a dull green. This oxidation reaction is the reason the copper-plated Statue of Liberty is green rather than orange-red. According to the Copper Development Association, a weathered layer of copper oxide only 0.005 inches (0.127 millimeters) thick coats Lady Liberty, and the covering weighs about 80 tons (73 metric tons). The change from copper-colored to green occurred gradually and was complete by 1920, 34 years after the statue was dedicated and unveiled, according to the New York Historical Society. Who knew? Here are some interesting facts about copper: According to Peter van der Krogt, a Dutch historian, the word "copper" has several roots, many of which come from the Latin word cuprum that was derived from the phrase Cyprium aes, which means "a metal from Cyprus," as much of the copper used at the time was mined in Cyprus. If all of the copper wiring in an average car were laid out, it would stretch 0.9 miles (1.5 km), according to the USGS. The electrical conductance (how readily a current can flow through the metal) of copper is second only to that of silver, according to the Jefferson Laboratory. Pennies were made of pure copper only from 1783 to 1837. From 1837 – 1857 pennies were made of bronze (95 percent copper, with the remaining 5 percent made up of tin and zinc). In 1857, the amount of copper in pennies dropped to 88 percent (the remaining 12 percent was nickel) and returned to its previous recipe in 1864. In 1962, a penny’s content changed to 95 percent copper and 5 percent zinc. From 1982 through today, pennies are 97.5 percent zinc and 2.5 percent copper. People need copper in their diets. The metal is an essential trace mineral that's crucial for forming red blood cells, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Fortunately, copper can be found in a variety of foods, including grains, beans, potatoes and leafy greens. Too much copper, however, is a bad thing. Ingesting high levels of the metal can cause abdominal pain, vomiting and jaundice (a yellowish tinge to the skin and white of the eyes that may indicate the liver is not functioning correctly) in the short term. Long-term exposure may lead to symptoms such as anemia, convulsions and diarrhea that is often bloody and may be blue. Occasionally, increased levels of copper are found in the water supply due to old copper pipes. For example, in August 2018, the public school system in Detroit turned off all drinking water in public schools as a precaution due to high levels of copper and iron found in the water, according to the Seattle Times. Copper has antimicrobial properties and kills bacteria, viruses and yeasts on contact, according to a 2011 paper in the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology. As a result, copper can even be woven into fabrics to make antimicrobial garments, like socks that fight foot fungus. Copper is also included in certain types of intrauterine devices (IUDs) used for birth control, according to the Mayo Clinic. The copper wiring creates an inflammatory reaction that is toxic to both sperm and eggs, in order to prevent pregnancy. There is, with any medical procedure, a risk of side effects. Although, copper toxicity doesn’t appear to be one, according to a 2017 article published in Medical Science Monitor. Electron configuration and elemental properties of copper. (Image credit: Greg Robson/Creative Commons, Andrei Marincas Shutterstock) Current research Medicine: Copper's antimicrobial properties have made it a popular metal in the medical field. Multiple hospitals have experimented with covering frequently touched surfaces, such as bed rails and call buttons, with copper or copper alloys in an attempt to slow the spread of hospital-acquired infections. Copper kills microbes by interfering with the electrical charge of the organisms' cell membranes, said Cassandra Salgado, a professor of infectious diseases and a hospital epidemiologist at the Medical University of South Carolina. In 2013, a team of researchers led by Salgado tested surfaces in intensive-care units (ICUs) in three hospitals, comparing rooms modified with copper surfaces attached to six common objects that are subjected to many hands to rooms not modified with copper. The scientists found that, in the traditional hospital rooms (those without copper surfaces), 12.3 percent of patients developed antibiotic-resistant infections such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). By comparison, in the copper-modified rooms, only 7.1 percent of patients contracted one of these potentially devastating infections. SEM micrograph of vancomycin-resistant enterococci "We know that if you put copper in a patient's room, you're going to decrease the microbial burden," Salgado told Live Science. "I think that's something that has been shown time and time again. Our study was the first to demonstrate that there could be a clinical benefit to this." The researchers changed nothing else about the ICU conditions beyond the copper; doctors and nurses still washed their hands, and cleaning went on as usual. The researchers published their findings in 2013 in the journal Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. Salgado and her team have also tested copper lining on stethoscopes, according to a 2017 article published in the American Journal of Infection Control, where the researchers found that there were significantly fewer bacteria on copper-coated stethoscopes and 66 percent of the stethoscopes were entirely free of bacteria. Further research is continuing to test the idea of copper plating in other medical wards, particularly in areas where patients are more mobile than in the ICU. There also needs to be a cost-benefit analysis weighing the expense of copper installation against the savings gained by preventing costly infections, she said. Electronics: Copper also plays a huge role in electronics, and because of its abundance and low price, researchers are working to integrate the metal into an increasing number of cutting-edge devices. In fact, copper may help produce futuristic electronic paper, wearable biosensors and other "soft" electronics, said Wenlong Cheng, a professor of chemical engineering at Monash University in Australia. Cheng and his colleagues have used copper nanowires to create an "aerogel monolith," a material that is highly porous, very light and strong enough to stand up on its own, similar to a dry kitchen sponge. In the past, these aerogel monoliths have been made from gold or silver, but copper is a more economical option. Silver nanowires By mixing copper nanowires with small amounts of polyvinyl alcohol, the researchers created aerogel monoliths that could turn into a sort of sliceable, shapeable rubber that conducts electricity. The researchers reported their findings in 2014 in the journal ACS Nano. The ultimate result could be a soft-bodied robot, or a medical sensor that melds perfectly to curved skin, Cheng told Live Science. He and his team are currently working to create blood pressure and body temperature sensors out of copper aerogel monoliths — another way copper could help monitor human health. Physics: In a 2014 experiment, a chunk of copper became the coldest cubic meter (35.3 cubic feet) on Earth when researchers chilled it to 6 millikelvins, or six-thousandths of a degree above absolute zero (0 kelvin). This is the closest a substance of this mass and volume has ever come to absolute zero. Researchers at the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics put the 880-lb. (400 kilograms) copper cube inside a container called a cryostat that is specially designed to keep items extremely cold. This is the first cryostat, or device for keeping things at low temperatures, that is capable of keeping substances so close to absolute zero. Building the extreme temperature cryostat is just the first step in a new experiment in which the cryostat will act as a particle detector. Researchers hope the detector, which is in the process of being commissioned according to a 2018 status update, will reveal more about the subatomic particles called neutrinos and why there is so much more matter than antimatter in the universe. Agriculture: Researchers at Cornell University have been studying the effects of copper deficiencies in crops, especially wheat. Wheat is one of the most important food staples in the world, and copper deficiencies can lead to both a lower crop yield and lower crop fertility. Wheat The researchers have been studying how plants absorb and process the copper. They have found two proteins within the wheat, AtCITF1 and AtSPL7, that are vital to the uptake and delivery of the copper to the wheat's reproductive organs, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Early tests have shown that when copper and other nutrients are enriched in the soil and then absorbed by the wheat, crop yields increase by as much as seven times. While the knowledge of copper and other minerals are known to be beneficial for the health and fertility of crops, the how and why of the fact is not well understood. The knowledge of why copper is beneficial and how it functions within a plant’s growth and reproduction can further be used on crops such as rice, barley and oats, and can introduce these crops with a mineral-rich fertilizer, which includes copper, to soil that was once unsuitable for farming. Additional resources The American Cancer Society examines the research about copper and claims that it may have a role in preventing or treating cancer. The Environmental Protection Agency provides information about exposure to high levels of copper and the effects of copper corrosion in household pipes. The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator facility (Jefferson Lab) explores the history and uses of copper. This article was updated on Sept. 12, 2018, by Live Science contributor Rachel Ross. Source: LiveScience - Facts about Copper | Wikipedia - Copper
  45. 1 point
    What's the Word? - GADZOOKS pronunciation: [gad-ZOOKS] Part of speech: exclamation Origin: English, late 17th century Meaning: 1. An exclamation of surprise or annoyance. Example: "Gadzooks! This coffee is hot!" "I was just walking down the street, and gadzooks, it starting pouring!" About Gadzooks Gadzooks is an exclamation (sometimes known as an interjection). This part of speech is a word or short phrase that can stand on its own, grammatically. It's used to insert surprise, excitement, or even pain and sadness. Anything that packs a punch — like the "pows!" and "bams!" of the old Batman cartoons. Did you Know? In the same family as "cheers," "good grief," "hooray," "kaboom," and "yabba dabba doo," "gadzooks" has a more religious origin story. It's an alteration of "God's hooks," i.e. the nails that held Jesus to the cross. Just like invoking a holy figure in your swears, "gadzooks" fits a similar purpose.
  46. 1 point
    Fact of the Day - ICE CREAM Ice cream served with whipped cream, chocolate sauce and a wafer. Did you know... that ice cream is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert. It may be made from dairy milk or cream and is flavoured with a sweetener, either sugar or an alternative, and any spice, such as cocoa or vanilla. Colourings are usually added, in addition to stabilizers. The mixture is stirred to incorporate air spaces and cooled below the freezing point of water to prevent detectable ice crystals from forming. The result is a smooth, semi-solid foam that is solid at very low temperatures (below 2 °C or 35 °F). It becomes more malleable as its temperature increases. (Wikipedia) The origins of frozen desserts are unknown, though there are several often repeated legends dated as early as the 3rd millennium BCE in ancient China. According to one legendary origin myth, the Roman Emperor Nero had ice collected from the Apennine Mountains to produce the first sorbet mixed with honey and wine. Other legends say ice cream originated in the Mongolian empire and first spread to China during its expansion. Raspberry Sorbet Its spread throughout Europe is sometimes attributed to Arab traders, but more often to Marco Polo. Though it's not mentioned in any of his writings, Polo is often credited with introducing sorbet-style desserts to Italy after learning of it during his travels to China. The Italian duchess Catherine de' Medici is said to have introduced flavored sorbet ices to France when she brought some Italian chefs with her to France upon marrying the Duke of Orléans (Henry II of France) in 1533. One hundred years later, Charles I of England was reportedly so impressed by the "frozen snow" that he offered his own ice cream maker a lifetime pension in return for keeping the formula secret, so that ice cream could be a royal prerogative. There is no evidence to support any of these legends. Snow was used to cool drinks in Greece around 500 BC and Hippocrates is known to have criticized chilled drinks for causing "fluxes of the stomach". Snow collected from the lower slopes of mountains was unsanitary and iced drinks were believed to cause convulsions, colic and a host of other ailments. Seneca criticized the extravagant costs associated with iced desserts in an era without refrigeration. Despite this, ice and snow were prized ingredients in ancient cuisines including Japanese, Chinese, Greek and Roman cuisines. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs show a snow-filled vessel next to fruit juice. There are Tang dynasty records of a chilled dessert made with flour, camphor and water buffalo milk and recipes for snow-chilled sweets are included in a 1st-century Roman recipe book. There are Persian records from the 2nd century AD for sweetened chilled drinks with ice made by freezing water in the desert at night. Water Buffalo Ice cream was made possible only by the discovery of the endothermic effect. Prior to this, cream could only be chilled but not frozen. It was the addition of salt, that lowered the melting point of ice, which had the effect of drawing heat from the cream and allowing it to freeze. The first known record of this comes from the Indian poem Pancatantra, dating to the 4th century AD. The earliest written description of the process is known not from culinary texts, but the 13th-century writings of Ibn Abu Usaybia concerning medicine. The technique of "freezing" is not known from any European sources prior to the 16th century. One of the first places to serve ice cream to the general public in Europe was Café Procope in France, which started serving it in the late 18th century. The ice cream was made from a combination of milk, cream, butter, and eggs. After the dessert was imported to the United States, it was served by several famous Americans. George Washington and Thomas Jefferson served it to their guests. The first ice cream parlor in America opened in New York City in 1776. American colonists were the first to use the term “ice cream”. The name came from the phrase “iced cream” that was similar to “iced tea”. The name was later abbreviated to “ice cream” the name we know today. Ice Cream Cone Until 1800, ice cream remained a rare and exotic dessert enjoyed mostly by the elite. Around 1800, insulated ice houses were invented. In 1843 Nancy Johnson invented a hand-cranked freezer that established the basic method of making ice cream still used today. In 1851, Jacob Fussell in Baltimore established the first large-scale commercial ice cream plant. Contrary to popular belief, the ever-popular ice cream cone was not invented at the 1904 World’s Fair. For instance, ice cream cones are mentioned in the 1888 Mrs. Marshall’s Cookbook and the idea of serving ice cream in cones is thought to have been in place long before that. However, the practice didn’t become popular until 1904. As to who specifically at the World’s Fair served the cones that popularized the treat, nobody knows exactly. Agnes Bertha Marshall According to legend, at the World’s Fair an ice cream seller had run out of the cardboard dishes used to put ice cream scoops in, so they could not sell any more produce. Next door to the ice cream booth was a Syrian waffle booth, unsuccessful due to intense heat; the waffle maker offered to make cones by rolling up his waffles and the new product sold well, and was widely copied by other vendors. Ice cream novelties such as ice cream on sticks and ice cream bars were introduced in the 1920’s. Ice cream became popular throughout the world in the second half of the 20th century after cheap refrigeration became common. A chemical research team in Britain (of which a young Margaret Thatcher was a member) discovered a method of doubling the amount of air in ice cream creating soft ice cream. Ice cream can be made in many types – ordinary ice cream, frozen custard, frozen yogurt, reduced-fat ice cream, sherbet, gelato, and others. Worldwide, around 15 billion liters (3.3 billion gallons) of ice cream are consumed every year, enough to fill 5,000 Olympic swimming pools. New Zealand leads the world in ice cream consumption with a per capita consumption of 28.4 liters per year; followed by the United States with a per capita consumption of 24.5 liters per year. Ice cream can be flavored with anything, so it is impossible to say how many flavors have existed throughout history. Vanilla seems to be the most popular flavor, with chocolate coming in second, butter is coming in third, strawberry coming in fourth and neapolitan coming in fifth. The world’s most popular ice cream toppings are: chocolate syrup, hot fudge, caramel, whipped cream, Oreo and sprinkles. Hawaiian Punch was originally an ice cream topping. Some ice cream brands are known for offering new and interesting flavor combinations. For instance, Ben & Jerry’s has dozens of notable flavors, including Cinnamon Buns, Crème Brûlée and Lemonade Sorbet. Craziest ice cream flavors around the world include Raw horse flesh - If you've often thought that there's nothing better than the taste of raw horse flesh, then raw horse flesh ice cream is the delightful frozen treat for you! Try a scoop at Ice Cream City inside Namja Town, an indoor amusement park in Tokyo. Foie gras - French ice creamery Philippe Faur combines fatty foie gras and diet-busting ice cream—how is it again that French women don't get fat? (Probably because they don't eat this ice cream.) This duck-liver flavor was invented by Faur, who says the dessert took four months to perfect. Jellyfish - Brushing up against a jellyfish in the ocean can bring searing pain, so why wouldn't you look at one and think, "I should put that in my mouth?" Crazy Charlie Francis, founder of Lick Me I'm Delicious ice cream company, apparently had that thought, because he's created ice cream that uses jellyfish protein as the main ingredient. Even cooler: When you lick it, the ice cream glows. Unfortunately, jellyfish don't come cheap—a single scoop sells for more than $200! Octopus - Who says you can’t have dessert with seafood? The chewy tentacle bits that come with every scoop will certainly overwhelm your sensory system! Lobster - With its vanilla bean and butter base and lobster pulled fresh from the Atlantic (then cooked and chopped!), this ice cream steals the show at the Chocolate Emporium…despite the fact that it doesn’t contain any chocolate at all. Also cool: The candy-red flecks of lobster make for a gorgeous treat that’ll make Instagram followers freak Mushy peas and fish - Scotland has its famous deep-fried Mars bars, and now England can compete in the disgustingly delicious dessert wars with the fish and chips ice cream from Teare Woods Luxury Ice Cream Parlour. It's a scoop of minty mushy peas flavor and a scoop of fish flavor, topped with bits of battered cod and served with a french fry. And this odd creation isn't even an original in England—in 2010, Frederick's Dairies launched a creamed cod-flavored ice cream served in a vanilla and pepper batter with potato ice cream chips. Haggis - Scotland’s national dish turned into a savory ice cream. Don’t know what haggis is? Haggis is a savory pudding containing a sheep’s pluck (heart, liver and lungs) minced with onion, oatmeal, suet, spices, and salt, mixed with stock, and traditionally encased in the animal’s stomach and simmered for approximately three hours. Still hungry? Roasted garlic - Roasted garlic, almond, and ice cream—three great things separately, but combined? Decide for yourself if the mash-up works at Sebastian Joe's Ice Cream in Minneapolis. Wasabi - Wasabi may be complementary to sushi… But this ice cream, which is available in the mountains of Nagano, takes the cake for bringing wasabi to a WHOLE NEW LEVEL. Go forth and challenge your tastebuds to a creamy, tingling sensation! Mint leaves with sea urchin meringues - Portland's Salt & Straw serves up this herbaceous ice cream, steeped in fresh Oregon mint leaves and mixed with meringues made from sea urchins and Italian espelette peppers. Your move, vanilla. Mamushi snake - What doesn't kill you makes a great ice cream—isn't that how the old saying goes? That must be the principle behind the mamushi ice cream found in Tokyo. For your reference, mamushi is one of the most venomous snakes in Japan and it's actually listed as one of the ingredients in the ice cream. In November 2007, Serendipity unveiled a $1,000 dessert called the "Golden Opulence Sundae", which Guinness World Records declared the world's most expensive dessert. The restaurant also serves the Frrrozen Chocolate Haute dessert, priced at $25,000. Serendipity 3 Frrrozen Hot Chocolate In May 2012, Serendipity 3 was recognized as the Guinness World Record holder for serving the world’s most expensive hamburger, the $295 Le Burger Extravagant Source: JustFunFacts - Ice Cream | Wikipedia - Ice Cream | Ice Cream Flavors From Around the World | Weird Ice Cream Flavors in Japan
  47. 1 point
    Friday Fact of the Day - OPERA Mariinsky Theatre is a world-famous opera house in St. Petersburg Did you know... that opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theatre. Such a "work" (the literal translation of the Italian word "opera") is typically a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery, costume, and sometimes dance or ballet. The performance is typically given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor. (Wikipedia) An opera is normally divided into two, three, four or even five acts. In older operas the music was mostly recitative and arias. During the recitative things would happen in the story. The aria was a song for a solo singer, a setting of a lyric. As well as recitative and aria there would be choruses. The chorus were a group of singers who sing in the crowd scenes. The opera would start with an overture for the orchestra. The overture would usually include tunes that are going to be heard later in the opera. The Pirates of Penzance In operas from the 19th century onwards there is often little or no difference between recitative and aria. Composers like Wagner wanted to get away from operas which had lots of separate arias in which the singers showed off, with the audience clapping loudly after each one. He wanted continuous music so that the mood would not be broken. Sometimes operas have a lot of dancing in them. French opera especially would often have one act which was full of dances. Not all operas have music all the time. Grand opera is opera which is all set to music. Opéra buffe (French) or Opera buffa (Italian) is comic opera. The story is very light-hearted and funny. Opéra comique is a French term for opera which has some spoken words. Surprisingly it does not mean a “comic” opera. An opera like Carmen, which is a tragedy, is still an opéra comique due to the fact that it uses spoken dialogues instead of recitatives. Singspiel is a German term for a type of opera with lots of magic and fantasy in the story. There were spoken words between the songs. Mozart’s Magic Flute is an example. Operetta is a short opera which is light-hearted and usually has some spoken words. The Singers Opera singers have to have powerful voices as well as a good technique. Most opera houses are very big, and the singers need to be heard at the back. They also need to be good at acting. They need to be able to learn their music quickly and to sing from memory. It is a help to be good at languages because operas are often in Italian, German, French, English or Russian etc. Some opera companies, like the English National Opera, sing their operas in English. Others, like the Royal Opera House, sing operas in whatever language they were composed in. Translations are printed on a screen above the front of the stage ("subtitles") so that the audience can understand what is being sung. Although singers train to get a wide range (good top and bottom notes) they cannot be expected to sing any role in their voice range. For example: some sopranos may have big, dramatic voices, suitable for parts like Tosca in Puccini’s opera Tosca. Some may have a very light and high voice, called “coloratura”, suitable for parts like the Queen of the Night in Mozart’s Magic Flute. Some may have a medium range, called mezzo-soprano, suitable for parts like Carmen in Bizet’s opera Carmen. Very often in opera the heroine is a soprano and the hero is a tenor. Basses may often have the part of a powerful king, or he may be the bad guy. Operatic conventions The 18th century lexicographer and critic Dr Johnson described opera as an “exotic and irrational entertainment”. By “exotic” he meant that it came from a foreign country (which in those days was true: all opera at the time came from Italy). By “irrational” he meant that the things which happened in the stories were strange and not like real life. A play can be like real life, but an opera is being sung, so things are not going to happen like they normally do in real life. A singer might be singing “I must go, I must go!” and he may stand on the stage and sing this for several minutes before at last he goes! A singer may be pretending to die, and will sing a beautiful song before he or she finally dies. These things are “conventions”, which means that they are a kind of habit we have to accept when watching and listening to opera. Another convention of earlier operas was to have the part of young men sung by women. This is sometimes called a breeches role or trouser role. They are often small parts such as page boys, or teenagers who flirt with older women, such as the part of Cherubino in Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro or Oktavian in Richard Strauss’s Der Rosenkavalier. It should be remembered that in the 18th century it was usual for the main female part to be sung by a man who was a castrato. That seems a very strange (and cruel) convention to us now. The Marriage of Figaro There are lots of famous operas, and the best ones have some of the greatest music ever written. The music could not have been written like that if it had not been written for opera. For example: Mozart is very clever at writing music where maybe six people are all singing different things at once because they all have different ideas about the situation in the story. Click the link below to read the history of opera. Source: WikiKidzSearch - Opera | Wikipedia - Opera
  48. 1 point
    What's the Word? - LOGOMACHY pronunciation: [lo-GAH-me-kee] Part of speech: noun Origin: Greek, mid-16th century Meaning: 1. An argument about words. Example: "A logomachy might seem silly, but it's important to get your message across." "We had a bit of a logomachy over what our new team slogan should be." About Logomachy Of course Greek philosophers would have a word to describe an argument about words. In Greek, "logomakhia" means word (logo) fighting (makhia). Did you Know? The Gershwin brothers' song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" is a perfect musical logomachy. The song is most famous for the line "You say to-may-to, I say to-mah-to" and other British versus American accent differences.
  49. 1 point
    Hey everyone! It has come to my attention that many people were coming across bookmarked/linked threads that led to a 'no permission' message. Let me take the time to clarify this for you. As you may or may not have been aware, quite some time ago Kametsu was the victim of copyright trolls - we were forced to make a very difficult decision. Do we care more for keeping the download sections? Or do we prioritize the site and its members? Ultimately, to protect the site's members, we made the difficult decision to remove all the download sections from the site. Unfortunately, there was no right or wrong decision here, as there would have been highly negative consequences with either decision. We were stuck between a rock and a hard place with no other way out. As it would turn out, though, the initial purge of those sections didn't exactly go as I planned. While the vast majority of those threads were indeed purged...what ended up happening in the end was, many of the old download threads were somehow missed in the initial round, and thus ended up "orphaned" when their parent forum/content they were attached to were purged. Thus, there were no longer any parent permissions to inherit - which resulted in the "No permission" message. Koby discovered this only recently and executed a more thorough cleanup, which now should correctly result in a "Not found" message instead. This does not change anything - we are not in any position to "go back" to the way things were. We have instead asked repeatedly what sort of site you'd like to see Kametsu become. To that end, we are most certainly open to ideas as to format change. That aside, please stop asking us about downloads. There's nothing we can tell you that hasn't already been said. We want to refocus the site, so if you have something constructive to contribute to that, you are more than welcome to send us a PM. Thanks for taking the time to read and understand this. As we've said many times in the past, we know this is a heartbreaking thing, we didn't want to have to do it but there was just little alternative left. We care more about the site, and of course the people that make up its community, than any 'downloads'.
  50. 1 point
    Chilling Adventures of Sabrina will end its run with its upcoming Part 4, which will be released in late 2020, leading to “a spooky, sexy & supernatural series finale,” Netflix announced Wednesday, realizing first-look images from the series’ final chapter. Originally developed for the CW, the Riverdale offshoot migrated to Netflix when the streamer offered a two-season order. The show’s seasons, referred to as Parts, ranged from 11 episodes, including a holiday special, in Part 1, 9 episodes in Part 2 and 8 each in Parts 3 and 4. This is a typical lifespan for a successful recent Netflix scripted series; Ozark, one of the streamer’s most popular dramas, was just renewed for a fourth and final season. Sabrina‘s end date comes a few days after the other Riverdale offshoot, the CW’s Katy Keene, was canceled after one season. It is unclear whether any characters from either ending series would make their way to the mothership Riverdale. That would include Kiernan Shipka’s title character from Chilling Adventures of Sabrina. “Working on Chilling Adventures of Sabrina has been an incredible honor from Day One. The cast, beginning with Kiernan as everyone’s favorite teen witch, has been an absolute joy. I am beyond thankful to the crew, writers, editors, assistants, and everyone for pouring so much love into this dark dream of a show,” said developer, exec producer and showrunner Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa. “I’m also grateful to our partners at Netflix, Warner Bros., Berlanti Television and Archie Comics for letting us tell the story we wanted to tell, the way we wanted to tell it. We can’t wait for everyone to see Part Four.” Over the course of Part 4’s eight episodes, The Eldritch Terrors will descend upon Greendale. The coven must fight each terrifying threat one-by-one (The Weird, The Returned, The Darkness to name a few), all leading up to…The Void, which is the End of All Things. As the witches wage war, with the help of The Fright Club, Nick begins to slowly earn his way back into Sabrina’s heart, but will it be too late? Cast includes: Kiernan Shipka, Miranda Otto, Richard Coyle, Ross Lynch, Lucy Davis, Chance Perdomo, Michelle Gomez, Jaz Sinclair, Lachlan Watson, Gavin Leatherwood, Tati Gabrielle, Adeline Rudolph, Abigail Cowen. Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa, who also serves as chief creative officer of Archie Comics, developed the series, which is based on characters from Archie Comics. Aguirre-Sacasa executive produces alongside Greg Berlanti, Sarah Schechter, Archie Comics CEO Jon Goldwater and Lee Toland Krieger. Chilling Adventures of Sabrina is produced by Berlanti Productions in association with Warner Bros. Television.
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