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  2. Fact of the Day - COUNTRIES Did you know.... that a country is a distinct territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign state or part of a larger state, as a non-sovereign or formerly sovereign political division, a physical territory with a government, or a geographic region associated with sets of previously independent or differently associated people with distinct political characteristics. It is not inherently sovereign. (Wikipedia) Fascinating Facts About Every Single Country on Earth By Max DeNike | updated on June 5, 2020 We know travel plans are impacted right now. But to fulfill your wanderlust, we'll continue to share stories that can inspire your next adventure. Have you ever wondered how many countries exist in the world? Do you know how many have “Guinea” in their name? Which one is the youngest? The answers might surprise you. The United Nations recognizes 193 countries plus two observer states, Palestine and the Vatican (Holy See). Besides big players like the United States, Indonesia, Pakistan, China, Mexico and Brazil, most of these countries have fewer than 50 million residents and might be difficult for people to find on a map. So, to make the world a bit more accessible and fun, we set out to find one no-way-it's-true, fascinating fact about all 195 of these countries/observer states, ranked by population. Armed with this information, you’ll be a big hit at the next office party, if maybe not so much on a first date. 1. China Population: 1.43 billion There are 63 million pairs of chopsticks — or 126 million single sticks — manufactured in China every year. These range from mass-produced disposable chopsticks to high-quality sticks that can take up to (yes) a month to painstakingly make. 2. India Population: 1.37 billion India gave the world its sweet tooth. Although sugarcane originated in Southeast Asia, it was first chemically refined about 2,500 years ago in India. (Thanks, India!) 3. United States Population: 329.1 million The stars and stripes make up one of the most recognizable flags of any country in the world. But did you know the modern iteration containing 50 stars was designed for a class project by an enterprising high school student in 1958, who anticipated the addition of Alaska and Hawaii a year later? Amazingly, the boy's unimpressed teacher gave him a B-. 4. Indonesia Population: 270.6 million This Southeast Asian country is the world’s largest island nation, but no one knows exactly how many islands it contains (thousands and thousands, to be imprecise). Indonesia attempted to count them all in 2017, but several differing figures still exist. 5. Pakistan Population: 216.6 million There’s a small city called Sialkot in this South Asian country that produces 40 percent of the world’s soccer balls. 6. Brazil Population: 211 million There are more uncontacted people in Brazil’s portion of the Amazon than anywhere else on the planet, with the number of isolated tribes believed to be more than 100. 7. Nigeria Population: 201 million The Yoruba people in the southwest part of this African nation are known for giving birth to more twins than anywhere else in the world, at a rate of 50 per 1,000 births. The best explanation so far is that Yoruba people eat a type of yam that contains an ovarian stimulate that might release more eggs. 8. Bangladesh Population: 163 million This South Asian country is very warm — so warm, in fact, that the lowest temperature ever recorded was 2.6 degrees Celsius (37.7 degrees Fahrenheit), which is just above freezing. Still, the 2018 cold spell was blamed for 12 deaths. 9. Russia Population: 145.9 million In 2012, Russian scientists were able to regenerate a plant from a seed found in Siberian permafrost that was more than 30,000 years old. 10. Mexico Population: 127.6 million This North American country is home to many pyramids built by the Mayans and other ancient civilizations, but perhaps its least famous triangular structure is actually the largest one in the world. The Aztecs are believed to have built the Great Pyramid of Cholula some 2,000 years ago, and its base is four times larger than Egypt's Great Pyramid of Giza. Today, however, Cholula is mostly covered by dirt and plants. Click the link below to read more fascinating facts about every single country on earth. Source: Facts About Countries | Wikipedia - Country
  3. What's the Word? - EGRESS pronunciation: [EE-gres] Part of speech: noun Origin: Latin, mid 16th century Meaning: 1. The action of going out of or leaving a place. 2. A way out. Example: "The door was propped open for easy egress." "Before the lights dimmed, the ushers pointed out points of egress to moviegoers." About Egress Egress developed from the Latin words “egressus” (gone out) and “egredi,” which came from the combination of “ex” (out) + “gradi” (to step). Did You Know? Architects carefully construct egress windows into bedrooms and basements in order to keep buildings up to code. These windows are specifically designed for an easy exit in the case of an emergency, such as a fire or floods, and professionals often include a ladder for an even hastier exit.
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  6. Fact of the Day - THE INCREDIBLE HULK Did you know.... that The Incredible Hulk is an American television series based on the Marvel Comics character The Hulk. The series aired on the CBS television network and starred Bill Bixby as Dr. David Bruce Banner, Lou Ferrigno as the Hulk, and Jack Colvin as Jack McGee. In the TV series, Dr. David Banner, a widowed physician and scientist, who is presumed dead, travels across America under assumed names, and finds himself in positions where he helps others in need despite his terrible secret: In times of extreme anger or stress, he transforms into a huge, savage, incredibly strong green creature, who has been named "The Hulk". In his travels, Banner earns money by working temporary jobs while searching for a way to either control or cure his condition. All the while, he is obsessively pursued by a tabloid newspaper reporter, Jack McGee, who is convinced that the Hulk is a deadly menace whose exposure would enhance his career. The series' two-hour pilot movie, which established the Hulk's origins, aired on November 4, 1977. The series' 80 episodes were originally broadcast by CBS over five seasons from 1978 to 1982. It was developed and produced by Kenneth Johnson, who also wrote or directed some episodes. The series ends with David Banner continuing to search for a cure. In 1988, the filming rights were purchased from MCA/Universal by New World Television for a series of TV movies to conclude the series' storyline. The broadcast rights were, in turn, transferred to rival NBC. New World (which at one point owned Marvel) produced three television films: The Incredible Hulk Returns (directed by Nicholas J. Corea), The Trial of the Incredible Hulk, and The Death of the Incredible Hulk (both directed by Bill Bixby). Since its debut, The Incredible Hulk series has garnered a worldwide fan base. (Wikipedia) Smashing Facts About The Incredible Hulk by Steven Y. | Factinate Created in 1962 by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, the Hulk has had along and tumultuous journey to becoming the iconic character he is today. In his comic book appearances, the Hulk is typically a massive, green-skinned humanoid with vast strength and healing capabilities, while his alter-ego, Bruce Banner, is a physically weak and socially withdrawn physicist. The storylines often play on the conflict between the two. In addition to comic books and graphic novels, the Hulk has appeared in television and film, both live-action and animated, as well as in his own videogames. Here are a few other things you might not have known about the Green Goliath. It Ain’t Easy Being Green Despite being one of the original Marvel characters, created around the same time as Spider-Man and Iron Man, the Hulk has always been on the verge of cancellation. In fact, his solo title was canned after just six issues in 1963. Hulk Bored In the Ultimate Universe, Bruce Banner triggers a Hulk transformation because The Ultimate's had nobody else to fight. Mad Jealous In that same storyline, Bruce happened to be insanely jealous that his ex-girlfriend Betty Ross was out on a date with Freddie Prinze Jr. The deranged Hulk tries to track down Freddie to eat him and the team has to stop his rampage. It’s just as well. Freddie Prinze Jr. does not look tasty. Involuntary Astronaut Thinking that it was the best way to contain him, the Illuminati, pretending to be Hulk’s friends, sent him into outer space to take out a satellite. This was a huge betrayal that will likely not result in the warmest and fuzziest feelings between everyone. A Dish Best Served Green After he was sent to space, he landed on the planet Sakaar which Hulk immediately conquered. Hulk then raised an army and returned to Earth to get revenge on The Illuminati for sending him away in the first place. B-B-But When the Hulk got his own TV series in 1978, they changed Bruce Banner’s first name to David because, as the show producer claimed, it was unrealistic to have a character with an alliterative name, conveniently forgetting the fact that Bruce Banner was played by Bill Bixby. Multiple Personalities Because “Hulk smash” got old fast, the Hulk has had a few iterations over the years including Joe Fixit, a Vegas mob enforcer, a smart version of the Hulk called “The Professor”, and a crazy Hulk who had to stay angry to stop reverting to a deranged Banner. Once a Hulk… Lou Ferrigno, the bodybuilder who played the Hulk, has actually been involved with every live-action Hulk adaptation ever including a cameo appearance in Ang Lee’s Hulk, The Incredible Hulk, and as the voice of the Hulk in “Avengers: Age of Ultron.” Fear Itself Although he was one of the founding members of The Avengers, Hulk actually left the group shortly after their first battle (against Loki) because he realized that his teammates were afraid of him. He stayed away for fifty years before finally returning. Hulk Sad In the storyline of “Hulk: The End,” everyone on Earth is killed by nuclear war leaving Bruce Banner to wander the wasteland by himself as an immortal kept alive against his will by the Hulk. Eventually, the Banner part of his psyche dies, leaving the Hulk alone forever which is depressing AF. Click the link below to read more facts about The Incredible Hulk Source: The Incredible Hulk Facts | Wikipedia - The Incredible Hulk
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  8. What's the Word? - STALWART pronunciation: [STOL-wərt] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Late Middle English, mid 1300s Meaning: 1. Loyal, reliable, and hardworking. 2. (dated) Strongly built and sturdy. Example: "John remained a stalwart supporter of the Chicago Cubs no matter the outcome of the game." "The old house was still as stalwart as it was in 1902." About Stalwart Stalwart originated in Late Middle English as a Scots variant of the obsolete word “stalworth,” a combination of the Old English words “stǣl” (place) and “weorth” (worth). Did You Know? Many television and radio stations rely heavily on stalwart supporters in order to survive. PBS has been made famous by its slogan that says production is possible by “viewers like you.” The statement is formulated to emphasize the importance of viewer support.
  9. Fact of the Day - FAMOUS FIRSTS (WOMEN) Famous Firsts in Women’s History HISTORY.COM EDITORS ORIGINAL:JAN 4, 2010 | UPDATED:FEB 4, 2021 American women’s history has been full of pioneers: Women who fought for their rights, worked hard to be treated equally and made great strides in fields like science, politics, sports, literature and art. These are just a few of the remarkable accomplishments by trail-blazing women in American history. 1. First women’s-rights convention meets in Seneca Falls, New York, 1848 In July 1848, some 240 men and women gathered in upstate New York for a meeting convened, said organizers, “to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of women.” One hundred of the delegates–68 women and 32 men–signed a Declaration of Sentiments, modeled on the Declaration of Independence, declaring that women, like men, were citizens with an “inalienable right to the elective franchise.” The Seneca Falls Convention marked the beginning of the campaign for women’s suffrage. 2. Wyoming Territory is first to grant women the vote, 1869 In 1869, Wyoming’s territorial legislature declared that “every woman of the age of twenty-one years, residing in this territory, may at every election…cast her vote.” Though Congress lobbied hard against it, Wyoming’s women kept their right to vote when the territory became a state in 1890. In 1924, the state’s voters elected the nation’s first female governor, Nellie Taylor Ross. 3. Californian Julia Morgan is first woman admitted to the Ecole de Beaux-Arts in Paris, 1898 The 26-year-old Morgan had already earned a degree in civil engineering from Berkeley, where she was one of just 100 female students in the entire university (and the only female engineer). After she received her certification in architecture from the Ecole de Beaux-Arts, the best architecture school in the world, Morgan returned to California. There, she became the first woman licensed to practice architecture in the state and an influential champion of the Arts and Crafts movement. Though she is most famous for building the “Hearst Castle,” a massive compound for the publisher William Randolph Hearst in San Simeon, California, Morgan designed more than 700 buildings in her long career. She died in 1957. 4. Margaret Sanger opens first birth control clinic in the United States, 1916 In October 1916, the nurse and women’s rights activist Margaret Sanger opened the first American birth control clinic in Brownsville, Brooklyn. Since state “Comstock Laws” banned contraceptives and the dissemination of information about them, Sanger’s clinic was illegal; as a result, on October 26, the city vice squad raided the clinic, arresting its staff and seizing its stock of diaphragms and condoms. Sanger tried to reopen the clinic twice more, but police forced her landlord to evict her the next month, closing it for good. In 1921, Sanger formed the American Birth Control League, the organization that eventually became Planned Parenthood. 5. Edith Wharton is the first woman to win a Pulitzer Prize, 1921 Wharton won the prize for her 1920 novel The Age of Innocence. Like many of Wharton’s books, The Age of Innocence was a critique of the insularity and hypocrisy of the upper class in turn-of-the-century New York. The book has inspired several stage and screen adaptations, and the writer Cecily von Ziegesar has said that it was the model for her popular Gossip Girl series of books. 6. Activist Alice Paul proposes the Equal Rights Amendment for the first time, 1923 Alice Paul toasting (with grape juice) passage of the Nineteenth Amendment. August 26, 1920. For almost 50 years, women’s-rights advocates like Alice Paul tried to get Congress to approve the Equal Rights Amendment; finally, in 1972, they succeeded. In March of that year, Congress sent the proposed amendment–“Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex”–to the states for ratification. Twenty-two of the required 38 states ratified it right away, but then conservative activists mobilized against it. (The ERA’s straightforward language hid all kinds of sinister threats, they claimed: It would force wives to support their husbands, send women into combat and validate gay marriages.) This anti-ratification campaign was a success: In 1977, Indiana became the 35th and last state to ratify the ERA. In June 1982, the ratification deadline expired. The amendment has never been passed. 7. Amelia Earhart is the first woman to cross the Atlantic in an airplane, 1928 After that first trip across the ocean, which took more than 20 hours, Amelia Earhart became a celebrity: She won countless awards, got a ticker-tape parade down Broadway, wrote a best-selling book about her famous flight and became an editor at Cosmopolitan magazine. In 1937, Earhart attempted to be the first female pilot to fly around the world, and the first pilot of any gender to circumnavigate the globe at its widest point, the Equator. Along with her navigator Fred Noonan, Earhart successfully hopscotched from Miami to Brazil, Africa, India and Australia. Six weeks after they began their journey, Earhart and Noonan left New Guinea for the U.S. territory of Howland Island, but they never arrived. No trace of Earhart, Noonan or their plane was ever found. 8. Frances Perkins becomes the first female member of a Presidential cabinet, 1933 Frances Perkins, a sociologist and Progressive reformer in New York, served as Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Secretary of Labor. She kept her job until 1945. 9. The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League becomes the first professional baseball league for female players, 1943 Rockford Peaches Women had been playing professional baseball for decades: Starting in the 1890s, gender-integrated “Bloomer Girls” teams (named after the feminist Amelia Bloomer) traveled around the country, challenging men’s teams to games–and frequently winning. As the men’s minor leagues expanded, however, playing opportunities for Bloomer Girls decreased, and the last of the teams called it quits in 1934. But by 1943, so many major-league stars had joined the armed services and gone off to war that stadium owners and baseball executives worried that the game would never recover. The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League was the solution to this problem: It would keep ballparks filled and fans entertained until the war was over. For 12 seasons, more than 600 women played for the league’s teams, including the Racine Belles (Wisconsin) , the Rockford Peaches (Illinois) , the Grand Rapids Chicks (Michigan) and the Fort Wayne Daisies (Indiana) . The AAGPBL disbanded in 1954. 10. The FDA announces its approval of “The Pill,” the first birth-control drug, 1960 In October 1959, the pharmaceutical company G.D. Searle applied for a license from the federal Food and Drug Administration to sell its drug Enovid, a combination of the hormones estrogen and progesterone, for use as an oral contraceptive. FDA approval was not guaranteed: For one thing, the agency was uncomfortable with the idea of allowing doctors to prescribe drugs to healthy people; for another, the young bureaucrat assigned to the case was fixated on moral and religious, not scientific, objections to the pill. Despite all this, Enovid was approved for short-term use in October 1960. Click the link below to read more Famous Firsts in Women's History. Source: Firsts in Women's History
  10. What's the Word? - EQUABLE pronunciation: [EK-wə-bl] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Latin, mid 17th century Meaning: 1. (of a person) Not easily disturbed or angered; calm and even-tempered. 2. Not varying or fluctuating greatly. Example: "Dad is easier to bargain with because of his equable personality." "The sea was equable and glassy, with not a single wave in sight." About Equable Equable’s modern definition of “fair and equitable” comes from the Latin words “aequabilis” and “aequare” (make equal). Did You Know? If the continual temperature fluctuation in a climate with four seasons seems rough to handle, it might be time to seek out an equable climate. An equable climate is one that has very little temperature variation. Some parts of Florida and California, for example, largely experience the same temperatures throughout the year, making them popular destinations for retirees and snowbirds.
  11. Fact of the Day - THE PENNY Did you know... that the United States one-cent coin, often called the penny, is a unit of currency equaling one one-hundredth of a United States dollar. It has been the lowest face-value physical unit of U.S. currency since the abolition of the half-cent in 1857. The first U.S. cent was produced in 1787, and the cent has been issued primarily as a copper or copper-plated coin throughout its history. Its obverse has featured the profile of President Abraham Lincoln since 1909, the centennial of his birth. From 1959 (the sesquicentennial of Lincoln's birth) to 2008, the reverse featured the Lincoln Memorial. Four different reverse designs in 2009 honored Lincoln's 200th birthday and a new, "permanent" reverse – the Union Shield – was introduced in 2010. The coin is 0.75 inches (19.05 mm) in diameter and 0.0598 inches (1.52 mm) in thickness. Its weight has varied, depending upon the composition of metals used in its production. (Wikipedia) Things You Didn’t Know About the Penny As Canada eliminates its pennies from circulation, explore surprising facts about the one-cent coin. JENNIE COHEN | UPDATED: AUG 22, 2018 | ORIGINAL: MAR 30, 2012 1. The word “penny” and its variations across Europe—including the German “pfennig” and the Swedish “penning”—originally denoted any sort of coin or money, not just a small denomination. German Empire: 10 pfennig iron coin 1917 2. Offa, an Anglo-Saxon king, introduced the first English coin known as the penny around 790 A.D.; it was made entirely of silver. Today’s British pennies (called “pence” when referring to a quantity of money) are worth one hundredth of a pound and minted in copper-plated steel. Two silver pennies of Offa's reign. The right-hand penny portrays Cynethryth. 3. The official term for the American penny is “one-cent piece.” However, when the U.S. Mint struck its first one-cent coins—then the size of today’s half-dollars and 100-percent copper—in 1793, Americans continued to use the British term out of habit. 4. Benjamin Franklin reportedly designed the first American penny in 1787. Known as the Fugio cent, it bears the image of a sun and sundial above the message “Mind Your Business.” A chain with 13 links, each representing one of the original colonies, encircles the motto “We Are One” on the reverse. 5. Along with the first U.S. penny’s design, the phrase “a penny saved is a penny earned” has been attributed to Benjamin Franklin. Visitors to the founding father’s grave in Philadelphia traditionally leave one-cent pieces there for good luck. 6. The copper content of U.S. pennies has declined over the years due to rising prices. The expensive metal makes up just 2.5 percent of one-cent pieces minted in 1982 or later; nickels, dimes and quarters, on the other hand, are mainly composed of copper. Still, today’s pennies cost more than their face value—an estimated 1.8 cents each—to produce. 7. In 1909, Teddy Roosevelt introduced the Lincoln cent to commemorate the 100-year anniversary of the 16th U.S. president’s birth. At the time, it was the first American coin to feature the likeness of an actual person (as opposed to the personifications of “liberty” appearing on earlier designs). Fifty years later the Lincoln Memorial was added to the penny’s reverse, complete with a tiny representation of the statue within. 8. The image of Abraham Lincoln on today’s American pennies was designed by Victor David Brenner, an acclaimed medalist who emigrated to the United States from Lithuania in 1890. Born Avigdor David Brenner, Brenner had fled his native land after being persecuted for his Jewish ancestry. Brenner holding a plaster model of the large design for the Lincoln cent (1909) 9. As copper supplies became vital to weapons manufacturing during World War II, the U.S. Mint decided to cast the 1943 penny in zinc-coated steel. Nicknamed “steelies,” these coins caused confusion because they closely resembled dimes; they also rusted and deteriorated quickly. 10. In the 1980s, U.S. military bases overseas abolished the penny and began rounding all transactions up or down to the nearest five cents. This is the system Canada plans to implement later this year. Canadian Penny Source: Wikipedia - Penny | What You Didn't Know About the Penny
  12. What's the Word? - CAPSTONE pronunciation: [KAP-stohn] Part of speech: noun Origin: Middle English, 1350s Meaning: 1. A stone fixed on top of something, typically a wall. 2. (Archaeology) A large flat stone forming a roof over the chamber of a megalithic tomb. Example: "Timothy chose white capstones for the top of the wall for the way they reflected the light." "The capstone was several hundred pounds, and it took all the assembled archaeologists some time to pry it loose." About Capstone This word originated in Middle English from a combination of the words “cap” and “stone,” and references the stone that often “caps” the top of an architectural structure, such as a wall. Did You Know? Capstone can be an architectural or archaeological term, but it also applies to other academics. A capstone can be an academic thesis students use to demonstrate their knowledge through a final body of work. A poetry student might create a portfolio focusing on a particular subject or technique for their capstone. What a capstone project looks like depends on the career path a student is pursuing.
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  14. Fact of the Day - ALTERNATIVE ROCK Did you know.... that alternative rock is a category of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1970s and became widely popular in the 1990s. "Alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream or commercial rock or pop music. The term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or simply the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. (Wikipedia) Alternative Music What Does It Mean for Music to Be Alternative? By Anthony Carew | Updated April 14, 2018 Being defined as something "other" has always left alternative music with an essential identity crisis. Alternative to what, exactly? Well, to orthodoxy. To the status quo. To playing it safe. To being in the music business for the business, not the music. To the man. To repressive politics. To racism, sexism, classism, etc. Music has always attracted the free-thinkers and the radicals, and underground music has been the place where the most radical of the radicals has been championed. Does that answer your question? Well, no, not really. Let's just say that, if Alternative Music must be an alternative to something, the safe answer is this: to whatever your parents like. When Did Alternative Music Begin? Fittingly enough, right as rock'n'roll was becoming the dominant musical mode of the Western World. As soon as rock was king, there quickly grew an underground of acts providing, yes, an "alternative" voice. If you're looking for a ground zero, well... let's say 1965. That was the year The Velvet Underground first got together in a New York loft, that MC5 first turned up their amps in a Detroit garage, and that a kooky Californian kid started calling himself Captain Beefheart. If you're looking to go further underground (Note: doing this is the passion of any self-respective alt-music enthusiast), 1965 was also when a Texan teenager named Roky Erikson began pioneering psychedelic-rock with a crew called the 13th Floor Elevators. It was the year that a pair of New York poets formed a primitive, satirical rock-group named The Fugs. And, it was the year The Monks, a band of American GIs living in Germany, released the a melodic, highly-rhythmic, audience-baiting album Black Monk Time, possibly the first-ever underground rock album. What Does Alternative Music Sound Like? Existing as an "other," alternative music should, in theory, simply sound unlike whatever the prevailing popular-musical models of the day are. Meaning, if you don't know exactly what it is, at least you know what it's not. Yet, from the mid-'80s through to the mid-'90s, the notion of what was safely "alternative" underwent a radical change. Nowhere more so than in America. After punk-rock marked a momentary blip on mainstream America's radar, the 1980s settled into a steady diet of big-name pop-stars and hair-metal peacocks, with hip-hop the nation's undeniable rising cultural force. The Sex Pistols in Amsterdam in 1977 (L–R: Paul Cook, Glen Matlock, John Lydon and Steve Jones). That left a massive chasm between the mainstream and the underground. Punk had mutated into hardcore, a form of music devoted wholly to grass-roots activity. And, hardcore or not, there were whole networks of bands doing things independently, completely off the commercial grid. For the best part of the '80s, there existed a happy divide —and a mutual disinterest— between these two worlds. Whilst the masses had their Madonna and Michael, the freaks had the Butthole Surfers and Black Flag. Things made sense. But, inevitably, change came. First R.E.M., old "college-rockers," cracked the mainstream. Former avant-garde noise outfit Sonic Youth signed with a major-label. And, then, Nirvana came out of nowhere to be the biggest band in the world. Grunge was a license to print money, sending major-label A&Rs into a frenzy. They ransacked once insular musical scenes of any barely-competent band. Failing that, they engineered their own. The whole thing became an exercise in profiteering that was satirized, for the ages, by The Simpsons' Hullabalooza festival. This mainstream crossover (or, to use the language of the time, "sell out") lead to Alternative Music's crisis of identity: if what was once alternative was now the status quo, what did 'alternative' even mean? If Nirvana once could've defined alt music, where did that leave come-later corporate copycats? It left the alternative world in a confused state. Which Genres Are Considered Alternative Music? Genres attempt to tell us what music is, but often they don't. Most genres that have strong, defined parameters are ones consigned to a specific point in time. When someone talks about shoegaze, krautrock, grunge, riot-grrrl, or post-rock, they're not just talking about a specific style and sound, but a place in time, in the past, we can view from the safety of hindsight. To be honest, the notion of genre, as a straight-laced form of specific sound and accompanying identity, is dying. While we're not denying the rise of the emo cult, there's recently been a telling increase in outfits impossible to quantify. What does one make, for instance, of Animal Collective, or Gang Gang Dance, or Yeasayer; bands whose seamless fusing of many disparate genres leaves them sounding like none? Are "Alternative" and "Indie" Essentially Interchangeable Terms? Well, yes and no. Casually speaking, yes, indie and alternative can essentially mean the same thing. But if we want to get down to the semantics of it. That's a whole other story. Is Alternative Music Always an Alternative? Of course not. Look at it this way: in 1990, the Grammy Awards started giving out trophies for the Best Alternative Album. In the years since, winners have included such noticeably not-indie figures as Sinéad O'Connor, U2, Coldplay, and Gnarls Barkley. So, no matter how hard you try and define "alternative music," people—especially Grammy voters—will make it mean whatever they want it to. Source: Wikipedia - Alternative Rock | Brief Alternative Music Facts
  15. What's the Word? - PRIMACY pronunciation: [PRY-mə-see] Part of speech: noun Origin: Late Middle English, 1350s Meaning: 1. The fact of being primary, preeminent, or most important. 2. The office, period of office, or authority of a primate (chief bishop or archbishop) of certain churches. Example: "London has reaffirmed its primacy as the most visited city in the U.K." "The Bishop’s primacy lasted well over ten years." About Primacy This word came into prominence in Late Middle English, but originally started out as the Old French word “primatie,” derived from the Latin words “primatia,” “primas,” and “primat” (which all mean “of the first rank”). Did You Know? The development of the American highway system welcomed the primacy of automobile travel. The Interstate Highway System was approved in 1956 under President Eisenhower. Regular automobile traffic spread across the network of roads, but interstate commerce and trucking also expanded, thanks to the highway system.
  16. Fact of the Day - INVENTION Did you know... that an invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process. The invention process is a process within an overall engineering and product development process. It may be an improvement upon a machine or product or a new process for creating an object or a result. An invention that achieves a completely unique function or result may be a radical breakthrough. Such works are novel and not obvious to others skilled in the same field. An inventor may be taking a big step toward success or failure. (Wikipedia) Inventions & Discoveries Jack De Graaf | Published: May 29, 2014 It really is impressive to look back at the great inventions of our time. It is even more impressive to look at how quickly some of the greatest inventions were replaced by better technology. Most days we cruise through life not sparing a thought to where the many inventions in our life come from. Many of these inventions are purposeful, but a select few are accidental. Fireworks The discovery of fireworks, or namely the formulation of gunpowder is believed to have occurred by chance approximately 2,000 years ago in China. It is thought that a Chinese cook accidentally mixed three common kitchen ingredients: charcoal, sulfur, and saltpeter. Three items commonly found in kitchens back then. When he found that the mixture he’d created burned. He played about a bit with his new-found fire-powder, as any self-respecting kitchen-alchemist would, and found that when compressed into a bamboo tube it exploded. After a few more combinations the cook found that he could cause different colored explosions and different effects to create what we now know as fireworks. Velcro Out on a hunting trip in 1948 with his trusty canine companion, Swiss engineer George de Mestral noticed the annoying tendency burrs had to stick to his socks and his dog’s fur. Back at home, giving the burrs an examination underneath his microscope, George noticed the tiny ‘hooks’ that stuck burrs to both fabric and fur. Mestral experimented for years with a variety of textiles before having a play with the newly invented nylon, and Velcro was born. However, it wasn’t until roughly two decades later that Velcro’s popularity boomed after NASA took a particular liking to the stick-and-rip stuff. Safety Glass The year is 1903 and French chemist Édouard Bénédictus is chilling out in his lab, mixing up some potions, when he accidentally knocks a flask off his desk, sending it to fall to the ground and shatter… or not. Bemused by the way the flask had not smashed into a hundred pieces on impact, Édouard stooped down to take a closer look. Upon inspection the chemist realized that it had recently contained plastic cellulose nitrate and that this had coated the inside of the flask, thus keeping it from shattering upon impact. Inspired by this mere mishap, Édouard Bénédictus went on to invent Safety Glass, something used on a mass-global level even today. Super Glue In 1942, Dr. Harry Coover set out to create a new precision rifle sight but failed epically. The substance he created, cyanoacrylate, was an utter failure – it stuck to everything. Deflated and dejected, Coover gave up and moved on, his invention forgotten. Fast forward 6 years and Coover is overseeing an experimental new design for airplane canopies. Once again he found himself sticking to things because of that damned cyanoacrylate! This time, however, Coover had a light-bulb moment and observed how this substance formed incredibly strong bonds between objects with no heat applied. This set him and his team to thinking, and with a little tinkering, sticking objects in the lab together, they realized they’d found a use for this annoying gloop. Coover whacked a patent on the discovery and in 1958, 16 years after he’d first gotten stuck, Super Glue was being sold on shelves all around the world. Tea Bags The teabag was the accidental invention of American tea merchant Thomas Sullivan. In 1908, Sullivan started sending samples of tea to his customers in small silken bags. Many of his customers assumed that these samples were to be used in the same manner as metal tea infusers, by putting the entire bag into the teapot. After sending out his samples, Sullivan received comments from his customers that the mesh on the silk was too fine. So he started to develop sachets made of gauze; the first purposely made tea bags. During the 1920s these were commercialized and they grew in popularity. Lo and behold, the tea bag was invented! Penicillin Life before antibiotics was certainly grim. And short. Infections ran rampage, especially STDs, making simple diseases that we wouldn’t bat an eyelid at nowadays a death sentence. Luckily for us in 1929 a young Scottish bacteriologist called Alexander Fleming went on holiday, and before he left he must’ve had his holiday-head on because he forgot to cover a petri-dish of Staphylococcus he was cultivating in his lab. When tidying upon his return, Fleming noticed that a mold in the dish had killed off many of the other bacteria. He identified this mold as Penicillium notatum, and researched it further to find out that it could kill other bacteria and could be given to small animals without them becoming ill. A decade down the line, Howard Florey and Ernst Chain picked up where Fleming left off, isolating the bacteria-slaying substance and turning it into a fully administrable medicine. For their efforts in medicine and science, the trio was awarded the Nobel Prize – and rightly so! The Microwave Percy Spencer, a man orphaned at 18 months old and taken out of school at 12 to work in a paper mill, was the accidental inventor of the Microwave Oven. An engineer at Raytheon after his WWI stint in the American Navy was known to all as an electronics genius. Fiddling about with a microwave-emitting magnetron, a piece commonly found in the innards of radar arrays, Percy suddenly felt a strange sizzling sensation in his trousers. Startled, he took a pause and found that the chocolate bar in his pocket had started to melt. Figuring to himself that the microwave radiation of the magnetron was to blame, he immediately set out to reap the potential. The end-game was the Microwave Oven, savior of students and single-men worldwide. Dynamite Humanity didn’t just figure out how to blow things up with the invention of dynamite – nitroglycerin itself had been around for years. But as Arzt from Lost will tell you: “Nitroglycerin is the most dangerous and unstable explosive known to man”. Alfred Nobel himself can testify to this. He worked with nitroglycerin in a series of experiments, which tragically ended in a fatality that claimed the lives of him, his younger brother, and a few others. Knowing how unstable it could be, Nobel continually tested methods for the safe transportation of nitroglycerin. Whilst transporting some of the deadly explosives, a can fell from a crate, spilling its contents all over the nitroglycerin. Nobel noticed that the can’s contents, a sedimentary type of clay called Kieselguhr, absorbed the nitroglycerin perfectly. Inspired by this simple coincidence, Nobel ingeniously developed a formula where the explosive could be mixed with the clay without hindering its explosive power. He patented his discovery, naming it dynamite, and revolutionized both the world of construction and the world of warfare. Viagra In 1998, pharmaceutical giant Pfizer set out to cure Angina Pectoris, or spasms of the heart’s coronary arteries, in plain English. In order to do this, they developed a pill named UK92480. However, UK92480 failed at its desired effect rather terribly, but the secondary effect of their little blue pill was certainly arousing, pun intended. That pill went on to become one of the world’s biggest-selling drugs, Viagra. In fact, it is estimated that seven Viagra tablets are sold worldwide every second – that’s 604,800 a day! Insulin Although the discovery of insulin was not directly an accident, the discovery that allowed researchers to, later on, find insulin was an accident. In 1889, two doctors at the University of Strasbourg were trying to understand how digestion was affected by the pancreas. In order to do this, they removed a healthy dog’s pancreas, a few days later they noticed that flies were swarming around the dog’s urine. They decided to test the urine and found sugar in it. This led them to the realization that by removing the pancreas they had given the dog diabetes. The two doctors never realized that what the pancreas produced regulated blood sugar. It wasn’t until a series of experiments at the University of Toronto between 1920 and 1922 that researchers were able to isolate a pancreatic secretion that they called insulin. Thus turning diabetes from certain death into a treatable condition. Source: Wikipedia - Invention | Accidental Inventions and Discoveries
  17. https://www.epicgames.com/store/en-US/p/pine Pine is currently free on Epic Games Store.
  18. What's the Word? - REDOUTABLE pronunciation: [re-DOW-də-bl] Part of speech: noun Origin: Late Middle English, mid 1300s Meaning: 1. (humorous) (of a person) Formidable, especially as an opponent. Example: "He was a redoubtable chess player, but still had to fight nerves before every match." "John earned his redoubtable reputation after leading his team to several victories." About Redoutable This word developed in Late Middle English by way of the Old French word “redoutable,” which comes from the combination of the words “redouter” (to fear) + “douter” (to doubt). Did You Know? Video game developers specialize in creating formidable antagonists. The goal is for a game to start at a moderate amount of difficulty, which increases as the player progresses and becomes more familiar with the material. The main villain, often referred to as the final boss, is the most redoubtable character and the hardest to overcome.
  19. Hawk_738


    Lol,I didn't knew kametsu has been switched to discussion forum only,I read kametsu faq and there was written that to access download you have to post Anyways,Thanks for accepting me on this platform
  20. Koby


    I don't know what you mean by trying to access download. There is no download here. Welcome to Kametsu anyhow. Maybe you'll stick around.
  21. Hawk_738


    I am not actually new here but still wanted to say hello. (I am just trying to access download) ***I AM STUPID***
  22. https://freebies.indiegala.com/affliction Affliction is currently free on IndieGala. https://www.epicgames.com/store/en-US/p/world-of-warships--exclusive-starter-pack World of Warships: Exclusive Starter Pack DLC is currently free on Epic Games Store. The base game, World of Warships, is free to play. https://store.steampowered.com/app/1419170/My_Singing_Monsters/ My Singing Monsters is free to play on Steam.
  23. Fact of the Day - FORGOTTEN SHOWS OF THE 50s, 60s, & 70s My Favorite Martian (1963) Did you know.... that the wonderful world of television is a vibrant hub of creativity, but with so many programs released every year, it can be easy to forget about the ghosts of productions past. These days, we have access to thousands of shows at the click of a button, but rewind a few decades and there were fewer choices. Back in the day, NBC, CBS and ABC were some of the biggest networks of the era (and they still are today). For sitcoms, the premise of these forgotten shows was pretty much the same as we see today; the same goes for police dramas and thrillers. Though humor and values may have changed, networks have kept pace as the years go on. Networks competed ruthlessly against each other to try and come up with the next hit program, but it didn’t always work out. This led to a stream of short-lived series that didn’t last long, and some that simply faded into the ether after they ceased production. Let’s take a look through the archives to see some titles long since forgotten. History By Emma Verner | Updated: Apr 5, 2021 Bourbon Street Beat Starring: Richard Long, Andrew Duggan, Arlene Howell, Van Williams First Aired: October 5, 1959 Number of Seasons: 1 People loved private-eye dramas, such as Columbo and Murder, She Wrote, so producers were sure that the Bourbon Street Beat would be a smashing hit. However, the show lasted only for one season. It simply didn’t have the right mix to keep viewers entertained enough. Still, in the ’50s this was one of the first major shows to feature a private detective agency. The show followed Rex Randolph (Long) and Cal Calhoun (Duggan) as they solved cases for 39 episodes before the show was canceled. However, Rex got another change as Long’s character moved to 77 Sunset Strip. Tales of Tomorrow Starring: Lon Chaney, Jr., Thomas Mitchell First Aired: August 3, 1951 Number of Seasons: 2 You have heard of Twilight Zone, and probably watched it, right? But did you know that Tales of Tomorrow paved the path to this planetary popular show? Episodes were packed with action and paranormal, and each episode lasted for 25 minutes. Stories like Frankenstein and 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea were just some of the tales that kept people mesmerized in front of their screens. The show aired on ABC and every episode focused on a different story which made things interested. Famous actors were often seen as guests including Boris Karloff and Leslie Nielsen. Sadly, the show lasted only for two seasons. Shotgun Slade Starring: Scott Brady First Aired: October 24, 1959 Number of Seasons: 2 Oh, how much people loved western TV shows and movies in the the 1950s. In fact, this genre was so much loved that by the ’60s knocked in the audience was done with a western vibe. This is the main reason why Shotgun Slade proved popular because viewers wanted something different. This was one of a kind Western mystery, with guest appearances from big-name stars at the time, including, Ernie Kovacs, Brett King, Brad Johnson, and more. The main character, Slade was a private investigator who would take on special cases, which was unusual in a Western. This original show lasted for two seasons and in total had 78 episodes. After the show was canceled, Scott Brady continues with his acting career and appeared as Sheriff Frank in 1984’s Gremlins. Flying High Starring: Kathryn Witt, Connie Sellecca, Pat Klous, Howard Platt First Aired: August 28, 1978 Number of Seasons: 1 The ‘50s and ‘60s had been largely dominated by male-led TV shows. Then the ’70s came and television started offering more female-led shows. One of them was Flying High, a comedy about three beautiful air hostesses and their work and personal life. Production directly went after models to star in the show. They were hoping to attract viewers faster. n fact, the sales head of CBS, Harvey Shephard, saw the three models on the elevator after the pitch, he called the head of the network and said, “We need this show.” Hopes for the show were big, but the show ultimately lacked substance and the show was canceled after 18 episodes, due to low ratings and high compression to Charlie’s Angels. The Hathaways Starring: Peggy Cass, Jack Weston, Marcy Grace Canfield, Harvey Lembeck, Barbara Perry First Aired: October 6, 1961 Number of Seasons: 1 Experienced people from the show biz world claim that working with children and animals is a show new level, but ABC didn’t care much when they ordered The Hathaways. Peggy Cass and Jack Weston portrayed loving parents to chimpanzees. Talking about plot twists, right? The show was sponsored by General Mills and was one of the earliest sitcoms to feature animals on TV. From the commercial side, the show wasn’t successful, but viewers loved it, in a way. All in, the show was a disaster from day one, while costing the network a real fortune. Critics called the show “possibly the worst series ever to air on network TV” and dubbed it “utterly degrading.” Peck’s Bad Girl Starring: Wendell Corey, Marsha Hunt, Patty McCormick, Ray Ferrell First Aired: 1959 Number of Seasons: 1 The biggest issue with Peck’s Bad Girl from the 1959’s was the audience. They simply didn’t get it no matter how much the reduction team put the effort into it. At the time parodies weren’t understood or welcome. Moreover, the whole idea of a family sitcom was too much to digest. The original film Peck’s Bad Girl was actually a silent film released in 1918. The show was canceled faster than it was released. In fact, this show is so unknown that there isn’t even a Wikipedia page about it. Broadside Starring: Edward Andrews, Dick Sargent, Sheila James, Kathleen Nolan, Joan Staley First Aired: September 20, 1964 Number of Seasons: 1 War dramas tend to focus on the male side of things. However, the Broadside decided to shake things a bit. This 1964 show, focuses on the women of the Navy in the World War II, with Kathleen Nolan in a starring role. The show was a success because it was something that no one expected. This show had great lines, an appropriate setting, and an enthusiastic cast that loved the show. Sadly, the show was canceled after only 32 episodes, because the production company simply didn’t have enough space to use the tropical exteriors on the lot. Convoy Starring: John Gavin First Aired: September 17, 1965 Number of Seasons: 1 Convoy followed Commander Dan Talbot (John Gavin) and his faithful crew on a cargo ship and their daily adventures. Their main task was to supply troops with food and other items in World War II. The biggest downside was the show’s black and white color. They choose to go with black and white color, so they could use old war photos. However, the audience was more into shows with vivid colors. Plus, some real-life NAVY people disagreed with various moments of the show, including the fact that women also traveled in convoys. Due to low ratings, the show was canceled. Holmes & Yo-Yo Starring: Jack Sher, Lee Hewitt First Aired: September 25, 1976 Number of Seasons: 1 Every great network knows people love seeing fun duos on TV. Remember Starsky & Hutch, or Cagney & Lacey? Sadly, Holmes & Yo-Yo lasted shortly, although ABC had high expectations from the show. Holmes & Yoyo was an ambitious show, but it was eventually marked as a complete disaster. It was eventually named on TV Guide’s List of the Worst 50 TV Shows of All Time. Click the link below to find other Forgotten Show of the 50s, 60s, & 70s. Source: Forgotten Shows
  24. Streets of Rage 4 (PC) - $14.99 Tales of Zestiria - Additional Chapter: Alisha's Story (PC) - $4.99 Tales of Zestiria - Pre-order Items (PC) - $3.49
  25. What's the Word? - CORRIGENDUM pronunciation: [kor-ə-JEN-dəm] Part of speech: noun Origin: Latin, early 19th century Meaning: 1. A thing to be corrected, typically an error in a printed book. Example: "The editor issued a corrigendum for the incorrect date in the final copy." "The small typo didn’t merit a corrigendum, but the newspaper still received emails with a correction." About Corrigendum Corrigendum originates from the Latin word “corrigere,” which means to “bring into order.” Did You Know? Books go through a lengthy process to get to publication. Part of that process involves Advance Readers Copies (ARC), which are printed copies of books used for promotional purposes. Not only are ARCs distributed with bloggers, reviewers, and PR in order to create some buzz; it is also a way for authors, editors, and publishers to evaluate their work for corrigendums before the book is finally published.
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  27. Fact of the Day - BUS A New Routemaster double-decker bus. Did you know... that a bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type is the ssingle-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses while coaches are used for longer-distance services. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special license above and beyond a regular driving license. (Wikipedia) Bus Facts A bus is a large wheeled vehicle meant to carry many different persons along with the driver. It is larger than a car. The name is a shortened version of omnibus, which means "for everyone" in Latin. Buses used to be called omnibuses, but people now simply call them "buses". Buses are an important part of public transport in places all over the world. Many people who do not have cars, especially the third world countries, use buses to get around. Buses make it easy for them to get to where they want to go. A place on a sidewalk/pavement where people wait for a local bus is called a bus stop. A building where people wait for a long-distance bus or where lots of buses meet is called a bus station. History Shillibeer saw the success of the Paris omnibus in service and concluded that operating similar vehicles in London, for the fare-paying public with multiple stops, would be a paying enterprise, so he returned to his native city. His first London "Omnibus", using the same design and name as the Paris vehicle, took up service on 4 July 1829 on the route between Paddington (The Yorkshire Stingo) and "Bank" (Bank of England) via the "New Road" (now Marylebone Rd), Somers Town and City Road. Four services were provided in each direction daily. Shillibeer's success prompted many competitors to enter the market, and for a time buses were referred to as 'Shillibeers'. Benz-Omnibus, 1896 Although passenger-carrying carriages had operated for many years, the new 'omnibus' pioneered a new service of picking up and setting down customers all along a particular route without the need to book in advance. Buses soon expanded their capacity, with additional seats for a few extra passengers provided alongside the driver. By 1845, passengers were being accommodated on the curved roofs, seated back to back in a configuration known as 'knife-board'. In 1852, Greenwood's in Manchester introduced the double-decker vehicle that could seat up to 42. Parisian omnibus, late 19th century In Germany, the first bus service was established in Berlin in 1825, running from Brandenburger Tor to Charlottenburg. In 1850, Thomas Tilling started horse bus services in London, and in 1855, the London General Omnibus Company was founded to amalgamate and regulate the horse-drawn omnibus services then operating in London. By the 1880s, bus services were a commonplace in England, continental Europe, and North America; one company in London was operating over 220 horse-buses. Horse-bus use declined with the advent of steam-buses and motor-buses; the last horse bus in London stopped operation in 1914. Steam buses Amédée Bollée's L'Obéissante (1875) Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation. The first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less likely to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, and caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, and from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation virtually eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, and 10 mph in the country. Trolleybuses World's first trolleybus, Berlin 1882 In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus, typically fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, and two wires hanging from these suspenders; allowing contact rollers to run on these two wires, the current could be conveyed to the tram-car, and back again to the dynamo machine at the station, without the necessity of running upon rails at all." The first such vehicle, the Electromote, was made by his brother Dr. Ernst Werner von Siemens and presented to the public in 1882 in Halensee, Germany. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 near Dresden, in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911. Motor buses The first internal combustion omnibus of 1895 (Siegen to Netphen) In Siegerland, Germany, two passenger bus lines ran briefly, but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler also produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company which was first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898. The vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 kph and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air platform above. With the success and popularity of this bus, Daimler expanded production, selling more buses to companies in London and, in 1899, to Stockholm and Speyer. Daimler also entered into a partnership with the British company Milnes and developed a new double-decker in 1902 that became the market standard. Early LGOC B-type The first mass-produced bus model was the B-type double-decker bus, designed by Frank Searle and operated by the London General Omnibus Company – it entered service in 1910, and almost 3,000 had been built by the end of the decade. Hundreds saw military service on the Western Front during the First World War. Daimler CC Bus 1912. One of five Daimler buses exported to Australia The Yellow Coach Manufacturing Company, which rapidly became a major manufacturer of buses in the US, was founded in Chicago in 1923 by John D. Hertz. General Motors purchased a majority stake in 1925 and changed its name to the Yellow Truck and Coach Manufacturing Company. They then purchased the balance of the shares in 1943 to form the GM Truck and Coach Division. Models expanded in the 20th century, leading to the widespread introduction of the contemporary recognizable form of full-sized buses from the 1950s. The AEC Routemaster, developed in the 1950s, was a pioneering design and remains an icon of London to this day. The innovative design used lightweight aluminum and techniques developed in aircraft production during World War II. As well as a novel weight-saving integral design, it also introduced for the first time on a bus independent front suspension, power steering, a fully automatic gearbox, and power-hydraulic braking. Types Athens bus interior in 2013 Formats include single-decker bus, double-decker bus (both usually with a rigid chassis) and articulated bus (or 'bendy-bus') the prevalence of which varies from country to country. Bi-articulated buses are also manufactured, and passenger-carrying trailers—either towed behind a rigid bus (a bus trailer) or hauled as a trailer by a truck (a trailer bus). Smaller midibuses have a lower capacity and open-top buses are typically used for leisure purposes. In many new fleets, particularly in local transit systems, a shift to low-floor buses is occurring, primarily for easier accessibility. Coaches are designed for longer-distance travel and are typically fitted with individual high-backed reclining seats, seat belts, toilets, and audio-visual entertainment systems, and can operate at higher speeds with more capacity for luggage. Coaches may be single- or double-deckers, articulated, and often include a separate luggage compartment under the passenger floor. Guided buses are fitted with technology to allow them to run in designated guideways, allowing the controlled alignment at bus stops and less space taken up by guided lanes than conventional roads or bus lanes. Bus manufacturing may be by a single company (an integral manufacturer), or by one manufacturer's building a bus body over a chassis produced by another manufacturer. Types of buses Coach / Motorcoach - A bus that is used for driving long distances with as much comfort as possible and more room. It has fewer doors than a city bus. School bus - a bus that takes people to their school or university. In America school buses are yellow while in other countries they may be different. Shuttle buses - a bus that drives between places without many stops. It is often used for sport events and other places where lots of people meet, and at airports. Minibus - A bus that is smaller than normal buses. It can carry about 8 to 25 people. Double decker bus - A bus that has two floors (decks). It can carry about 70 people. Low-floor bus - A bus that is nearer the ground than other buses so you can get in and out more easily. This type is often used in cities. The floor may get lower when the bus stops and higher when it moves. Trolleybus - A bus that gets its energy from electric cables above the street, not from petroleum fuel. Articulated bus - A bus that can bend in the middle so that it can be long and still move in small streets. Guided bus - A bus that is guided on rails like a train but is used on normal streets. Often it can also be used like a normal bus. Neighbourhood bus - It is like a school bus. Training bus - A bus that is used for new drivers to practice with. It might not be safe for passengers and might have been changed so a teacher can easily help the new driver. Gyrobus - A bus which does not use a normal engine. It has a big flywheel of steel or other materials (weighing about one ton) rotating at very high speed (RPM).. Hybrid bus - A bus that has two engines, for example a fuel engine and an electric engine. Police bus - A bus that is used by the police to transport a large number of policemen. Offroad bus - A bus that is made to be used beyond normal roads, often used by the Army. Open-top bus - A bus that has no roof, often used for tourism. Source: Wikipedia - Bus | Facts About Buses
  28. What's the Word? - ANAMNESIS pronunciation: [an-əm-NEE-sis] Part of speech: noun Origin: Greek, late 16th century Meaning: 1. The remembering of things from a supposed previous existence (often used with reference to Platonic philosophy). 2. (Medicine) A patient's account of a medical history. Example: "The character spends most of the movie trying to resolve her anamnesis with her current life." "The nurse collected Mr. Collins’ anamnesis while the doctor continued his checkup." About Anamnesis This word originated from the Greek word “anamnēsis,” which means “remembrance.” Did You Know? Experiencing déjà vu — intense feelings of having experienced something before — is often attributed to anamnesis, but may have a more practical explanation. Rather than remembering specific moments from another life, researchers believe that déjà vu occurs because of a few different possibilities: a minor brain “glitch” where short-term memories can be confused with long-term memories, a memory that someone doesn’t properly remember, or possibly from a dream or other subconscious experience.
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