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  3. Fact of the Day - HIJAB An Asian Muslim girl wears hijab (headscarf). Did you know... that a hijab is a veil worn by certain Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family or sometimes by men, which covers the head and chest. Another interpretation can also refer to the seclusion of women from men in the public sphere, whereas a metaphysical dimension, may refer to "the veil which separates man, or the world, from God". (Wikipedia) Things You Need to Know About the Hijab by Jessica Harn | October 2017 Hijab is not just a scarf, it is a way of life for many. The hijab, which is the Islamic expression of modesty and devotion, is more often than not misunderstood and misinterpreted in both society and mass media. What is the hijab, why do people wear it, and why should we care? Here are 10 things you need to know about the hijab before making an assumption about Islam. The hijab is not just the scarf Contrary to popular belief, the hijab is not just the physical scarf that many Muslim women choose to wear over their hair. The hijab in its entirely is the belief that as a Muslim, one must try to diligently live every day in respect of God, with modesty, and show devotion to the religion as a whole. By wearing the physical scarf, it is one way of expressing one’s love for Islam. In this way, hijab can also be the way one acts, thinks, and treats others, aside from wearing the physical scarf. There are many different forms of hijab The hijab comes in many forms, and in many levels of covering one’s body as well. The shape of the scarf over the head differs from person to person, some choose to cover their faces as well, and some only choose to dress modestly while still showing their hair. These are all forms of hijab, even if it does not look like the stereotypical one sees in the media. The hijab also applies to men Because the overarching meaning of hijab is to live one’s live modestly with love for God, the hijab also applies to men. While not as well known outside the Muslim community, men also strive to wear the hijab both physically and mentally every day, the same as Muslim women. The men’s physical hijab however focuses more on covering the lower body and not the hair or upper body. Who can Muslims take off the hijab for? The hijab, once worn as a scarf covering one’s hair and covering the body, can only be taken off in front of family members or women. A Muslim woman wearing the hijab will therefore usually refrain from showing her hair to any man not related to her by blood. The hijab is a choice for the majority of Muslims Putting aside extreme countries like Saudi Arabia and Iran, Muslim women are not always forced to wear the hijab. In fact the majority of them choose to wear it and are in love with their hijab, and are completely free to choose when and how to wear the scarf. There will never be one uniform reason on why Muslims choose to wear hijab Although there may be some general similarities to why Muslim women choose to wear the hijab, there will never be one overarching specific reason why that satisfies all. Muslim women choose to wear the hijab for countless different reasons, from personal to religious purposes, from interpretations of the Quran to fashion; the reasons behind every single person’s choice to wear the hijab will differ. But that is the beauty of it, that it is not a universal object that conforms everyone. In fact, it can express every person’s unique strength and belief system. What the Quran says about the hijab Although there are many interpretations to what the Quran actually says about the hijab, the most common understanding comes from these verses: “Say to the believing men that they restrain their eyes and guard their private parts. That is purer for them” (Quran 24:31) “Oh you Prophet, tell your wives, your daughters, and the women of the believers to lengthen their garments. This is better so that they will be recognized and not harmed. God is the Forgiver and the Merciful” (Quran 33:59) The hijab is not oppressive or restraining Although this misconception is slowly changing, the hijab is still too often equated with oppression. The hijab is in no way oppressive or restraining to the majority of the 1.6 billion Muslims around the world, and does not prohibit them from pursuing their dreams, acting the way they want, dressing how they like, or marrying who they love. The hijab is far more often than not a freedom of expression. Why the hijab is empowering for millions of Muslims across the globe The important thing to understand about the hijab is that it is in fact extremely empowering for millions of Muslim women. The hijab empowers them with the pride and love for their religion, and the power of modesty also helps many feel stronger. Being modest means forcing people to judge you based on your mind and your heart, and less so on your face or body. This gives courage and self-esteem to many who choose to wear the hijab. Understanding the hijab is understanding another form of feminism Finally, because the hijab can be so empowering to so many people, wearing the hijab has become an expression of feminism. Wearing the hijab can mean to many that they have the freedom to choose how to self-express. Because a woman is using self-expression and not being forced to dress a certain way by societal pressures, many women then feel empowered and more equal to men because they are forcing people to judge them on their capabilities and not on how sexualized their bodies can be. Source: Wikipedia - Hijab | Facts About the Hijab
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  5. What's the Word: CICERONIAN pronunciation: [sis-ə-ROH-nee-ən] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Latin, mid 17th century Meaning: 1. Characteristic of the work and thought of Cicero. When relating to writing or speech, that which is in a manner similar to that of Cicero; logical and elegant. Example: "She delivered a lecture in a Ciceronian manner — clear, logical, and riveting to listen to." "There was a Ciceronian elegance to the letter, which made logical arguments for the board to consider." About Ciceronian Ciceronian is derived from the name of the great Roman statesman, orator, and writer Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BCE). He had an incredible influence on Latin prose style, which in turn directly influenced much European prose. Did You Know? Cicero, for whom the word “Ciceronian” was coined, had a style of oratory and prose that relied heavily on subordinate clauses while also being logically balanced. For example, “a room without books is like a body without a soul” is credited to Cicero.
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  7. Fact of the Day - COLDEST CITIES Ottawa, Canada Did you know... that some people live for plunging temperatures, chilly evenings, and snowy mornings. And while a tropical getaway has its own appeal, there's something about a frigid winter holiday that feels magical. From the coldest capital city in the world to entertaining snow and ice festivals, there are many wonderfully icy winter destinations for those who don't mind a little chill. (The Discoverer) The World's Coldest Cities By ROBERT SCHRADER | Updated on 07/09/20 Fact checked by JILLIAN DARA For the majority of people, a cold front in winter means bundling up with an extra layer, but there are a few places on Earth that drop the temperature to wild extremes. Happily, most winters don't come close to the bone-chilling -90 F/ -68 C temp of the remote village of Oymyakon in Russian Siberia, which is often known as the coldest city on Earth. Temperatures dropped to an all-time low in 1933 to make the town the coldest permanently lived-in human settlement, according to Guinness World Records. From Canada to Kazakhstan, these are the coldest cities in the world, ranked from warmest to coldest, based on average January temperature. 01. Astana, Kazakhstan Average January temperature: 6.4 F/ -14.2 C Astana is a modern city defined by futuristic architecture, glittering mosques and a wealth of shopping and entertainment centers. Although the summer months are warm, winters in Astana are long, dry, and exceptionally cold. Extreme lows of -61 F/ -51.5 C have been recorded, although the monthly average for January is 6.4 F/ -14.2 C. Most years, the city’s river remains frozen over from mid-November to early April, makes this one of the coldest cities in the world. 02. International Falls, Minnesota, United States Average January temperature: 4.4 F/-15 C This northern Minnesotan city calls itself "The Icebox of the Nation," and with record lows of -55 F/ -48 C and an average seasonal snowfall of 71.6 inches, that claim is well-justified. International Falls has the most days per year with high temperatures below freezing of any incorporated city in the contiguous U.S.—not to mention some spectacular night skies. It is best known for its Canadian border crossing, and as the gateway to nearby Voyageurs National Park. The park is popular for kayaking and hiking in summer, and cross-country skiing and ice-fishing in winter. International Falls might not be the coldest city on Earth, but it's close. 03. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Average January temperature: -11.2 F/-24.6 C Perched 4,430 feet above sea level on the edge of the steppes of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar is the world’s coldest national capital. The city experiences extreme seasons with recorded summer highs of 102 F/ 39 C; however, plunging lows of -44 F/ -42 C during the long winter months give Ulaanbaatar an average annual mean temperature that hovers just below freezing. As well as being the international gateway to Mongolia’s spectacular wilderness areas, Ulaanbaatar boasts a bevy of rich cultural sights ranging from Tibetan-style Buddhist temples to fascinating modern art galleries. Ulaanbaatar is one of the coldest cities in the world in general, in addition to being its coldest capital. 04. Barrow, United States Average January temperature: -13 F/-25 C Located above the Arctic Circle in Alaska, Barrow is the northernmost city in the United States. It has the lowest average temperature of all Alaskan cities, exacerbated by frequent cloud cover and extreme winds of up to 60 miles per hour. The sun remains below the horizon for 65 days each year, while on average, only 120 days of the year experience high temperatures that are above freezing. However, despite record lows of -56 F/ -49 C, there are plenty of reasons to visit Barrow. These include its rich Iñupiat culture, the beauty of the surrounding tundra and the opportunity to witness the northern lights in this cold city (which is admittedly not the coldest city on Earth). 05. Yellowknife, Canada Average January temperature:-18.2 F/-27.9 C The capital of Canada’s Northwest Territories lies 250 miles south of the Arctic Circle. Out of the 100 Canadian cities included in a survey by Environment Canada, Yellowknife is the coldest year-round, has the coldest winter, the most extreme windchill and the most extended snow cover season. The lowest temperature ever recorded was -60 F/ -51 C, and yet ironically, it also boasts the sunniest Canadian summer. Rich in gold-rush history, Yellowknife is a mecca for adventurers, offering activities ranging from hiking beneath the midnight sun to dog-sledding, snowmobiling and spotting the northern lights, in addition to its title as one of the coldest cities in the world. 06. Norilsk, Russia Average January temperature: -22 F/-30 C Norilsk is the world’s most northerly city with more than 100,000 inhabitants, and one of only three major cities located in the continuous permafrost zone. At 14 F/ -10 C it has the coldest mean annual temperature of any big city, while lows reach extremes of -63 F/ -53 C. in the winter. Norilsk is unlikely to become a major tourist destination, despite having museums, an art gallery and one of the world’s northernmost mosques, as the mining industry has made it one of the most polluted places on Earth and the city has been closed to foreigners since 2001. The coldest cities in the world aren't always the cleanest! 07. Yakutsk, Russia Average January temperature: -41 F/ -40 C The capital city of Russia’s Sakha Republic, Yakutsk is located approximately 280 miles south of the Arctic Circle. With average January temperatures of -41 F/ -40 C, Yakutsk is thought to be the coldest city on Earth, at least when major cities are considered. Sights like the Permafrost Kingdom ice museum, the Christian Market and the National Art Museum of the Republic of Sakha, make this city a worthwhile destination for those that don’t mind the chill. Average temperatures of 67 F/ 19.5 C in July make it a summertime possibility for fair-weather travelers. Source: Facts About the Coldest Cities in the World | The World's Coldest Cities
  8. What's the Word: RECONDITE pronunciation: [rə-KAHN-diyt] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Latin, mid 17th century Meaning: 1. Little known; obscure, (specifically regarding knowledge). Example: "The academic textbook contained a lot of recondite information that was hard for the students to understand." "We were very pleased that we could follow the recondite directions to the lake." About Recondite Recondite comes from the Latin word “reconditus,” which means hidden or put away. It can also be used as an adverb, “reconditely,” or as a noun, “reconditeness.” Did You Know? If you remove the prefix “re,” you are left with the verb “condite,” which means to pickle or preserve — “condite” is possibly a more recondite word than “recondite.”
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  10. Fact of the Day - FORMULA ONE The start of the 2018 Austrian Grand Prix Did you know.... that Formula One is the highest class of international auto racing for single-seater formula racing cars sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile. The World Drivers' Championship, which became the FIA Formula One World Championship in 1981, has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950. The word formula in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, which take place worldwide on both purpose-built circuits and closed public roads. (Wikipedia) Wild Facts About Formula 1 Racing That Most Fans Don't Know BY REBECCA O'NEILL | PUBLISHED SEP 05, 2019 F1 has been around since 1950 and has been a driving force in the racing industry. People have dreams of becoming one of the famed Formula 1 racers, but fans have the pleasure of watching the action take place. The cars race by on our screens as we cheer on our favorite teams from the couch, or if we're lucky, from the stands at the track. There are several facts many people probably don't know about Formula 1 racing, but we have uncovered them just for you. Your knowledge of the sport may be vast, but there are some things even the biggest fans don't know. Keep reading to learn 10 wild facts about Formula 1 racing that most fans don't know! Teams Can Have as Many as 600 People There might only be about 50 people trackside on race day, but there are so many more team members working behind the scenes to make it happen. There are some teams with close to 600 people working to make their team the best of the best. Every team has engineers, management officials, assembly workers, and more working to support a single franchise. This number can vary from team to team, but it comes at no surprise that such a large number of people work together to try and bring home a victory. There are Two Championships Many assume that drivers are racing for single a championship title, but there is actually a second title to be won called the Constructor's Championship. The teams enter two of the exact same cars under two different drivers, and each car earns points in each of the races. A constructor is the group of people who design these cars and only ten times in history has the award been given to a team who didn't win the driver's award. The constructor's championship may not seem like much, but the prize is a large sum of money that can make or break a team the next season. A Car Costs $10 to $20 Million These cars were not just thrown together, but millions of dollars are poured into their creation. The companies generally don't release the exact price of these powerful machines, but it is estimated that an effective car will run someone about $12 million, which gets more expensive every year. The main issue is that the rules about design keep changing from year to year, and the adjustments made to the vehicles are more than just a simple fix. This might seem low when compared to the team's budgets of $400 million, but this dollar amount doesn't take into account the salaries of the workers responsible for putting this vehicle together. A Driver Generally Loses About 9 Pounds of Water During a Race The drivers who handle these monster machines can lose between eight and nine pounds of water weight over the course of a race. This is due to the poor ventilation of the vehicles, the stress it puts on their batteries, and the focus they need to drive properly. These figures are usually only seen on extremely hot race days, as an ample air conditioning system isn't on their priority list in a vehicle. Drivers are given a drinking system in their units to keep them from getting dehydrated over the course of a race, and some even choose to relieve themselves in their own cars. The Steering Wheels Have Over 20 Buttons The steering wheels on F1 cars are not your run of the mill devices, but they look more like something you would use to play a video game or fly an airplane. They grow more high tech every year and usually, the drivers are directly involved in the creation process. You can control the engine modes, talk to your team, or even set the speed limit. The rubber handles are usually molded to a particular driver's hand and they can take up to eighty hours to put together due to their sheer complexity. Number 13 Has Only Been Assigned Twice A number is assigned to every car and driver to help identify who is who in a race. It is a racing tradition not to use the number 13 for any team, but it has been used in Formula 1 two times in its history. It was used in the 1963 Mexico Grand Prix and the 1976 British Grand Prix, but it didn't qualify in the second race. The driver in the race in Mexico was Moisés Solana, a nobody, so both the number and the newcomer shocked the racing world when they showed up at the race. The driver in the British Grand Prix was a woman named Divina Galica, but her time did not allow her to qualify. 2018 Was the Only Season to Start and End With the Same Drivers 2018 was the first and only season where the same group of drivers made it from start to finish throughout the entire season. It is not uncommon for teams to trade out drivers for new ones halfway through the season, but this was the one occasion where no one It's quite a feat for these drivers to keep their positions, but we never do now what is running through the corporations' heads as they try their hand at winning a championship. Drivers Focus On Strengthening Their Necks You might have noticed that many F1 drivers have ridiculously thick necks, but this is what they desire. Their necks can experience up to 5Gs of force while wearing a helmet and other support gear that weighs up to 15 pounds. This means the driver has to be able to withstand 75 pounds of force being applied to their neck as they focus on driving a vehicle. This is no simple feat which is why drivers train to keep their necks and upper backs in the best shape possible through a series of exercises designed to strengthen these muscles. The Cars Never Refuel Formula 1 might have pit stops, but unlike Nascar, they do not refuel their vehicles. The cars run on the same tank of gas for the entire race and their team is only permitted to replace the tires. The reason behind this is because it became a safety concern as any mishap with the lines could be harmful to the driver, crew, and spectators. It also took away any advantages some teams might have over others, making it a fair race for all parties involved. 53 Formula 1 Drivers Have Died This number has dropped astronomically since new safety measures have been implemented, but the most recent death did occur back in 2017 at the Historic Grand Prix. This sport is dangerous and only becomes more so as cars reach new top speeds and gear is upgraded to create better vehicles. Since 2000, we have only seen the loss of four drivers, but the number still brings a tear to our eyes as we imagine the pain their families must be feeling. They died doing what they loved, and we will remember them for the rest of time for their sacrifice in this sport. Source: Wikipedia - Formula One | What Fans Don't Know About Formula One Racing
  11. What's the Word: FOSSORIAL pronunciation: [fah-SOR-ee-əl] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Latin, mid 19th century Meaning: 1. Burrowing, specifically related to animals. 2. Limbs that are adapted and particularly well suited to burrowing or digging. Example: "The badger digging up holes in the backyard is a fossorial animal." "The fossorial limbs of a mole make them excellent at digging the burrows that they live in. " About Fossorial Fossorial and "excavate" both mean to remove something, usually earth. Did You Know? Fossorial animals are not the same as subterranean animals — they might burrow and dig, but they don’t spend all their time underground. Subterranean animals, such as mole rats, bilbies, and earthworms, create complicated underground networks of burrows and spend most of their time underground. Fossorial animals, like groundhogs or chipmunks, create simple burrows and spend a lot of time above ground.
  12. Fact of the Day - CRUSADES Did you know... that the Crusades were a series of religious wars initiated, supported, and sometimes directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The best known of these Crusades are those to the Holy Land in the period between 1095 and 1291 that were intended to recover Jerusalem and its surrounding area from Islamic rule. (Wikipedia) Facts About Crusades History | May 6th 2016 Facts about Crusades present the information about a series of wars. At that time, Jerusalem and Holy Land were controlled by Muslims. The Christians of Europe tried to take over the lands. During the middle Ages, Jerusalem was considered as a significant site for various religions in the world. It was considered as the site where Muhammad rose to heaven for Muslims. It was believed that King Solomon built the temple of God in the Jerusalem. On the other hand, Christians considered it as an important site because it was the site where Jesus Christ was crucified. Get other interesting facts about crusades below: 1. Who Fought In Crusades? Jerusalem was controlled by the Arabs. They had to fight against the armies of Europe who tried to capture Jerusalem. Most European armies were from Holy Roman Empire. 2. The First Crusades The European armies consisted of commoners, peasants and knights during the 1st crusades. They had around 30,000 soldiers. They had different reasons to be engaged in the first crusades. Some of them wanted to go to the heaven because the fight had something to do with religious belief. Others wanted to improve the skill, rank or wealth. 3. The Beginning Of Crusades The first Crusades began when the Turkish warlord Atsiz, who seized most of Syria and Palestine as part of the expansion of the Seljuks throughout the Middle East. The Seljuk hold on the city resulting in pilgrims reported difficulties and the oppression of Christians. The result was the First Crusade. 4. Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Byzantine Emperor Alexius I wanted to get rid of the Turks who controlled the land by asking a help from Pope. The Franks and Holy Roman Empire decided to help Byzantine Emperor after Pope gathered the army. 5. The Long War Crusades were considered as a very long war for it lasted for more than 200 years. The initial crusades took place in 1095. 6. The Most Successful Crusade The most successful crusade is the first crusade. It took place in 1095 until 1099. Jerusalem was under the control of armies of Europe after they expelled the Turks. 7. The Second Crusade In 1147 until1149, the Second Crusade took place, but it was not successful. The Turks earned victory to control the City of Edessa in 1146. Find facts about Coventry Blitz here. 8. The Third Crusade King Richard the Lionheart of England, King Philip Augustus of France and Emperor Barbarossa of Germany were the leaders in the Third Crusade which took place in 1187 until 1192. For this reason, the Third Crusade is also known as the Kings' Crusade. 9. King Richard King Richard was considered as the Lionheart of England. Fizzling out with a whimper, the Crusade collapsed because, by the time they arrived at their objective, the western leaders found themselves without sufficient men or resources to resist the still intact armies of Saladin. Although a compromise was negotiated with access for pilgrims to Jerusalem permitted and a Christian foothold maintained in the Middle East, another attempt to take the Holy City would shortly be made the original objective of the Fourth Crusade of 1202-1204 CE. 10. Pope Innocent III Pope Innocent III hoped that he was successful to retake Jerusalem. Therefore, he led the Fourth Crusade which took place in 1202 until 1204. However, in a bizarre combination of cock-ups, financial constraints, and Venetian trading ambitions, the target ended up being Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire and the greatest Christian city in the world. Sacked on 12 April 1204 CE, Constantinople was stripped of its riches, relics, and artworks, and the Byzantine Empire was divided up between Venice and its allies. The Fourth Crusade thus gained its infamous reputation as the most cynical and profit-seeking of all the crusades. Check facts about Crimean War here. Source: Wikipedia - Crusades | Facts About The Crusades
  13. What's the Word: INSPIRIT pronunciation: [in-SPEER-it] Part of speech: verb Origin: Middle English, 15th century Meaning: 1. Encourage and enliven (someone). Example: "Jane knew how to inspirit her husband when he felt down." "It was hard to inspirit the sleep-deprived mother." About Inspirit This word comes from the Middle English “inspiriten,” meaning “to stir (someone’s mind) into action.” Did You Know? The word “inspirit” has inspirited many people to incorporate it into their company names. There’s Inspirit AI, an Artificial Intelligence education program developed and taught by MIT and Stanford students, Inspirit Yoga Studio in Florida, the mystical Inspirit Crystals in Massachusetts, several retirement homes with the name Inspirit, and the Inspirit Foundation in Toronto, which promotes inclusion and pluralism through the arts.
  14. Fact of the Day - BLACK SUNDAY The "Black Sunday" dust storm approaches Spearman in northern Texas, April 14, 1935. Did you know... that Black Sunday refers to a particularly severe dust storm that occurred on April 14, 1935 as part of the Dust Bowl in the United States. It was one of the worst dust storms in American history and it caused immense economic and agricultural damage. It is estimated to have displaced 300 million tons of topsoil from the prairie area. On the afternoon of April 14, residents of several plains states were forced to take cover as a dust storm or "black blizzard" blew through the region. The storm hit the Oklahoma panhandle and northwestern Oklahoma first, and moved south for the remainder of the day. It hit Beaver, Oklahoma around 4 p.m., Boise City around 5:15, and Amarillo, Texas at 7:20. The conditions were the most severe in the Oklahoma and Texas panhandles, but the storm's effects were also felt in other surrounding areas. The combination of drought, erosion, bare soil, and winds caused the dust to fly freely and at high speeds (Wikipedia) Black Sunday: The Storm That Gave Us the Dust Bowl BY ERIN BLAKEMORE | JANUARY 18, 2017 It seemed like an ordinary day at first. Like any other day, folks on the Great Plains were struggling to get by. People walked to church, swept up from the dust storm that had blown through the week before, perhaps discussed the Congressional hearings that had brought the plight of the region, which had been ravaged by drought and the economic effects of the Great Depression, to the attention of the rest of the nation. But Black Sunday—April 14, 1935—was no ordinary day. That afternoon, a gigantic cloud swept across the Great Plains. It was 1000 miles long and blew at speeds up to 100 miles per hour. It was made of 300,000 tons of dust whipped from the ground of northern farmlands, where poor soil conservation techniques had led to widespread erosion made worse by the unending drought. Great Plains residents were used to dust, but they had never seen anything like this. One observer compared it to “the Red Sea closing in on the Israel children … it got so dark that you couldn’t see your hand before your face, you couldn’t see anybody in the room.” “You couldn’t see the street lights,” recalled Jim Williams, who watched the storm from his home in Dodge City, Kansas. “It rolled over and over and over and over and over when it came in,” another witness remembered, “and it was coal black; it was coal black, and it was terrible that afternoon. It was hot and dry.” Humans weren’t the only ones terrified by the storm. Birds fled ahead of the cloud. Confused by the dark, chickens started to go inside to roost. Cows ran in circles. Once the storm subsided, a simple spring day had become the worst day in recent memory. The “black blizzard” that swept across the plains states left a trail of devastation in its wake—leveled fields, crashed cars, reports of people who had been blinded or given pneumonia by the storm. Everything was covered in dust, which choked wells and killed cattle. “Black Sunday,” as the storm became known, was the death knell for the poor farmers of Oklahoma and Texas. Demoralized and impoverished, thousands of so-called “Okies” cut their losses and began the long migration to more favorable locations like California. In Boise City, Oklahoma, an Associated Press reporter named Robert E. Geiger had weathered the storm with photographer Harry G. Eisenhard. “Three little words achingly familiar on a Western farmer’s tongue,” he wrote after the storm, “rule life in the dust bowl of the continent—if it rains.” Some speculate that Geiger meant to say “dust belt,” a term he used to refer to the devastated region before and after Black Sunday. Inadvertent or no, the term was picked up almost immediately. Geiger had given name to a phenomenon that would come to define the economic and social impacts of the Great Depression. But though Black Sunday and the Dust Bowl it helped name drew attention to the plight of the plains and turned soil conservation into a national priority, its effects were best summed up by a folk singer, not a reporter or politician. These are some of the lyrics to Woody Guthrie’s “Dust Storm Disaster,” which tells the story of the “deathlike black” cloud that enveloped America that day in 1935: It covered up our fences, it covered up our barns, It covered up our tractors in this wild and dusty storm. We loaded our jalopies and piled our families in, We rattled down that highway to never come back again. Source: Wikipedia - Black Sunder (storm) | Facts About Black Sunday
  15. What's the Word: TWEE pronunciation: [twee] Part of speech: adjective Origin: British, early 20th century Meaning: 1. Excessively or affectedly quaint, pretty, or sentimental. Example: "Mary Beth had a fascination with all things twee." "The porcelain, flowered tea set was a twee addition to her kitchenware." About Twee This word stems from the childish pronunciation of the word “sweet.” Did You Know? In 2014, James Parker wrote about the “Twee Revolution” in “The Atlantic.” He bemoaned touchstones of the twee aesthetic that were popular at the time, such as Wes Anderson movies, men with exaggerated mustaches, actress Zooey Deschanel’s quirky public persona, and the band Belle and Sebastian.
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  17. Fact of the Day - DEUS EX MACHINA Deus ex machina in Euripides' Medea, performed in 2009 in Syracuse, Italy; the sun god sends a golden chariot to rescue Medea. Did you know.... that deus ex machina is a plot device whereby a seemingly unsolvable problem in a story is suddenly and abruptly resolved by an unexpected and unlikely occurrence. Its function is generally to resolve an otherwise irresolvable plot situation, to surprise the audience, to bring the tale to a happy ending, or act as a comedic device. (Wikipedia) Worst Cases Of Deus Ex Machina That Ruined The Anime A get-out-of-jail-free card that's a hallmark of lazy writing, the Deus Ex Machina is one of the most infamous and hated tropes in fiction. BY ANGELO DELOS TRINOS | AUG 24, 2021 The Deus Ex Machina (or God In The Machine) is the most controversial yet misunderstood plot device in all fiction. Simply put, it's when "god" (read: the writer) steps in to give the desperate heroes a sudden solution to a hopeless situation. Deus Ex Machina aren't inherently bad, but when used clumsily or improperly, they can ruin even the best anime. It should be noted that these aren't unpopular plot twists and endings, but bad plot contrivances and unearned conclusions. Pokémon: The First Movie — The Pokémon Cried So Hard That Ash Ketchum Came Back To Life Pokémon is no stranger to plot contrivances, but nobody minds since they give the anime its goofy charm. One of the best hilariously bad story-breaking examples came from Pokémon: The First Movie, where Mewtwo was a few steps away from declaring war on humanity and Ash Ketchum died trying to stop him. More specifically, Ash was petrified into stone, but he was as good as dead. Just before his death could've really hit home, the surrounding Pokémon cried and their tears somehow brought Ash back to life. Mewtwo pontificated about how Pokémon and humans are actually capable of loving each other, but this didn't explain the Pokémons' magical tears, nor were they ever bought up ever again. Yu-Gi-Oh! Duel Monsters — The Heart Of The Cards Broke All Tension & Logic Deus Ex Machina in anime might as well be renamed "The Heart Of The Cards," the abstract force that helps Yami Yugi win literally every card duel he's in. In practice, believing in a card's heart somehow allows Yugi to draw the right card at the right moment. That, or it powers up the card or gives it a new effect. The actual logic or limits of The Heart Of The Cards is never properly defined, though it's essentially Yugi's carte blanche to break the rules or even rewrite them while in the middle of playing a children's card game. As a result, what little internal logic Yu-Gi-Oh! had was broken from the very first episode. JoJo's Bizarre Adventure — Jotaro Kujo Suddenly Learned How To Stop Time Better Than Dio JoJo's is known for seemingly random power-ups, but Stardust Crusaders' final fight is egregious even by the series' standards. With no build-up whatsoever, Jotaro's Stand (Star Platinum) learned how to stop time just like the unbeatable Dio and The World could. Seconds after revealing this, Jotaro blew up a Dio who was just as confused as the audience. The only explanation given was that Star Platinum just happened to unlock Time Stop the moment Dio slammed a road roller into Jotaro's face. Despite this coming completely out of left field and undoing Dio's established threat in seconds, a majority of the JoJo's fanbase doesn't hate this contrivance because it was so ridiculously cool and badass that no one dared question it. Naruto: Shippuden — Madara Uchiha Was Defeated By The Anime's Actual Villain For years, Madara was hyped up to be Naruto's big villain that Team Seven and every living ninja had to defeat. Madara was practically a ninja god by Shippuden's tail end, meaning only a Deus Ex Machina could plausibly beat him. In fact, Naruto mastermind Masashi Kishimoto himself admitted that this was an oversight. Even when Naruto and Sasuke were blessed with god-tier power-ups from the legendary and barely mentioned Sage Of The Six Paths, they didn't stop Madara. Instead, it was Black Zetsu acting on orders from Kaguya Otsutsuki, Naruto's actual true evil who was rarely seen or spoken of beforehand, who did. Naruto and Sasuke were then able to quickly beat up Kaguya with their god-tier jutsu due to her lack of combat experience. Bleach — Sosuke Aizen's Deus Ex Machina Were Defeated By The Heroes' Own Deus Ex Machina When Aizen entered the battlefield of the Fake Karakura Town, he was basically a god. Because of how overpowered he was, and thanks to his endless contingency plans for literally every attack, it was impossible to defeat him. In effect, the only way to overcome Aizen's Deus Ex Machina was with even more Deus Ex Machina. After Ichigo's new game-breaking techniques only momentarily stopped Aizen, the power-enhancing Hogokyu suddenly rejected Aizen. Just then, Kisuke Urahara's sealing spell - which he fired into Aizen via Kido earlier - took effect. This battle of Deus Ex Machina got so out of control that it was hard to take Bleach's ever-escalating stakes seriously. Gantz — Gantz Decided To End The Anime Out Of The Blue At the time of Gantz's airing, the manga was barely halfway done. The otherwise straightforward death game anime needed a concrete ending, but instead of declaring a winner and loser, it got surreal. This was achieved through the black sphere, Gantz, the anime's literal Deus Ex Machina that acted on its own whims and abruptly ended the story. After Kei defeated the murderous Muruto, Gantz transported Kei to the day he died. While being cheered on by the dead characters, Kei stopped running from the train and faced it head-on. Gantz's countdown hit zero and it vanished, ending the anime. To this day, this is one of the most baffling finales in anime history. Darling In The FranXX — Hiro & Zero Two Used The Power Of Love To Save The Universe Darling In The FranXX's romantic endgame was always going to be Hiro and Zero Two, but the way their love's perfection saved the day reduced the dark mecha anime to a borderline farce. Long story short, Hiro and Zero Two's love was so beautiful that it embodied mankind's undying willpower to thrive and end the VIRM once and for all. The VIRM is an ancient cosmic threat, and humanity needed more than some robots piloted by teenagers to beat them. The solution was for Zero Two - empowered by Hiro's love and their friends' support - to fuse with their mecha, Strelizia, to unleash Strelizia True Apus, a planet-sized Zero Two that blew up the entire VIRM planet. Wonder Egg Priority — The Conflicts Resolved Themselves & Left The Anime In Shambles After starting out strong, Wonder Egg Priority dropped the ball when the time came to resolve its biggest mysteries and fights. In the penultimate episode, the artificial human Frill was revealed to be behind the uptick in suicide incidents among girls for unknown reasons. Worse, she had her sights set on Ai, Neiru, Rika, and Momoe. But in the heavily delayed finale, these core conflicts conveniently solved themselves without the cast's help. Frill just left after convincing Neiru (who's actually an artificial human) to join her, and everyone else gave up before Ai rescinded at the last minute. These simultaneously answered some of the anime's biggest questions while leaving more in its wake. Sword Art Online — Kirito Is Practically A Living Deus Ex Machina Beyond the implication that Kirito is the greatest gamer ever, almost all of his victories had no build-up or justification. When he's not defeating armies without losing a single hit point, Kirito is saved by or saves the day thanks to godsent contrivances. These robbed Sword Art Online of all stakes and emboldened the criticism that it was a transparent power fantasy. Examples include Kayaba conveniently giving Kirito the game's admin rights in Fairy Dance's final fight, perfectly predicting how his assassination attempt in Phantom Bullet would go, suddenly knowing how to do gymnastics in Alicization, and - most notoriously - hacking/programming a dead Yui back to life in the original anime. Neon Genesis Evangelion — Human Instrumentality Was An Abstract Intervention, Not The End Of The World Instead of having Shinji Ikari resolve his angst through an earth-shattering battle like what most mecha anime do, Evangelion dropped the fights and psychoanalyzed him in a two-part clip show. Though this finale benefited greatly from hindsight, it's still one of the most infamous and most literal Deus Ex Machina ever seen in anime. While Evangelion's last two episodes were recontextualized by the sequel movies, it's still an obvious cop-out - especially after it seemed to lead up to a biblically apocalyptic clash. This now iconic Deus Ex Machina was only made possible by the perfect storm of Gainax's financial problems and showrunner Hideaki Anno's personal struggles. Source: Wikipedia - Deus ex Machina | Deus Ex Machina That Ruined The Anime
  18. What's the Word: SOUPÇON pronunciation: [soop-SAWn] Part of speech: noun Origin: French, mid 18th century Meaning: 1. A very small quantity of something. Example: "The steak came with a soupçon of horseradish sauce for dipping." "There was a soupçon of nail polish left in the bottle." About Soupçon This word came from the Old French "sospeçon," which comes from the Latin verb “suspicere,” meaning "to suspect." Did You Know? “Soupçon” is often linked to culinary topics now, but that wasn’t always so. In the 18th century, English speakers picked up the word from the French, who were using it to describe when someone has an inkling about something, or a touch of suspicion.
  19. Fact of the Day - RODEO CLOWNS Did you know.... that a rodeo clown, bullfighter or rodeo protection athlete, is a rodeo performer who works in bull riding competitions. Originally, the rodeo clown was a single job combining "bullfighting"—the protection of riders thrown from the bull, as well as being an individual who provided comic relief. Today in the United States, the job is split into two separate ones: bullfighters who protect the riders from the bull, and entertainers (barrelmen) who provides comic humor. However, in other parts of the world and at some small rodeos, the jobs of rodeo rider protection and comic remain combined. (Wikipedia) History of the Rodeo Clown by Pam Hillman | FEBRUARY 16, 2020 This week an icon in the PRCA rodeo passed away. Lecile Harris (1937-2020), died in his sleep Wednesday night after the final show of the Dixie National Rodeo and Livestock Show in Mississippi, my home state. At 83 years young, Mr. Harris was still doing what he loved, being a rodeo clown. And he was good at it. It was a shock to hear the news on Thursday morning, and it got me to thinking about the history of rodeo clowns. When competitive rodeo became all the rage in the early 1900s, promoters hired cowboys to entertain the crowd between events. Prior to that, let’s just say the games and matches played out on the plains between cowboys matching skills and wits, there wasn’t really any need to “entertain” between the events that the cowboys themselves had come to see. But once there was a paying audience, those people wanted a lot of bang for their buck, and wanted to be entertained every second they were at the “show”. Much like the people at the medieval jousting matches and the Roman Coliseums. The cowboys whose job it was to entertain the crowd started wearing oversized, baggy clothing, and some even painted their faces just as circus clowns do. The rodeo clown took a lot of cues from circus clowns and court jesters as their job—initially— was the same: to entertain the rowdy crowd. It wasn’t exactly dangerous… unless the crowd became unruly, I suppose. But soon the crowds grew bored and wanted more danger and ill-tempered bulls were brought in for the bull-riding events. As most of us know, bull riders are only expected to stay on for 8 seconds and after that, that mean, ornery, I-will-trample-everything-in-my-path bull is out for blood. Rodeo Clowns, June 24, 1959 So the rodeo clowns stepped up to distract the bulls from the rider so he could get to safety. Many times the clowns worked in pairs, and I’ve seen as many as three or four in the arena. In the 1930s, Jasbo Fulkerson introduced a wooden barrel as a barrier and a way to escape the enraged bull. These days, a heavy duty plastic barrel does the trick, but still, it all looks quite scary when you see a bull butting one of those things and you know a bullfighter is inside! These men are professional athletes and the proper term for them is bullfighter all across the globe. Many still wear baggy bright clothes and all kinds of flashy things to get the bulls’ attention, but make no mistake, they are highly skilled at what they do. When a rider is injured or hung up, they risk their lives to free that rider. Honestly, they are some of the bravest, most skilled men I’ve ever seen in action. In larger rodeos, there are bullfighters who are 100% focused on the bull, and then there’s the rodeo clown (sometimes called the barrelman) whose job is to poke fun at the bull, the riders, the other bullfighters and entertain the crowd, while also convincing everybody he’s the tough one out there in the ring. But even that seasoned old cowpoke who might be a bit over the hill has paid his dues, and at one time, he was the one with an angry bull breathing down his neck. Such was the case with Lecile Harris. He started out wanting to ride bulls, but his tall, lanky frame wasn’t suited to the job. He fell into the job of bullfighter when another guy failed to show up one day, and the rest is history. He was a natural and was always a “class clown”, so he loved hamming it up for the crowd. At the age of 52, he was injured in the arena, which ended his career as a bullfighter, and he spent the next 30 plus years in the ring entertaining the crowds as the main attraction, the Rodeo Clown. Six decades in the ring, and he’d performed a few hours before he drew his last breath. RIP, Lecile Harris. For more older photos of rodeo clowns, visit Lecile's FB page and scroll through the photos. Or go to Youtube and search for rodeo clowns or rodeo bullfighters to see some of these guys in action! The multi-talented Harris was a football player at the University of Tennessee-Martin, a session drummer in the Memphis are during the 1950s and early ‘60s and has done some performing on television and in films. He spent five years on the TV series Hee Haw and appeared in the films Walking Tall: The Final Chapter, The Last Days of Frank and Jesse James and W.W. and the Dixie Dance Kings. And check out "A Cowboy's Guardian Angel" Source: Wikipedia - Rodeo Clown | History of a Rodeo Clown
  20. What's the Word: PENSILE pronunciation: [PEN-səl] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Latin, early 17th century Meaning: 1. Hanging down; pendulous. Example: "The peaches were ripe and pensile." "The snow on the branches made them pensile." About Pensile This word stems from the Latin “pensilis,” from the verb “pendere,” meaning “hang.” Did You Know? There’s some confusion about how to pronounce “pensile.” Some online sources with audio of the word say it the same way “pencil” is pronounced. Others say it’s “pen-sahyl,” with the long ‘i’ sound. It appears either is correct, although the latter pronunciation might prevent some confusion in verbal speech.
  21. Final Fantasy V Update 2 The main content of the update is as follows. Battle Adjustments The ability ""Cover"" has been altered so it now activates when in critical condition. In battles that cannot be escaped from, the ability ""Hide"" has been changed so it continues, even when all characters other than the hidden character are wiped out. The ability ""Barehanded"" has been adjusted to reduce correctly when certain command abilities are used, such as ""Rapid Fire"" and ""Jump"". The HP reduction effect of ""Thornlet"" now continues throughout battle. A fix has been implemented meaning that when a character wearing an accessory that grants additional effects is KO, Petrify or turned into a zombie, and those effects are ended, the effects will now automatically return after their status is restored to normal. The status ailment resistance of some monsters has been decreased. The behavior of certain monsters using non-standard counters when hit by special kinds of attacks, such as multi-hit attacks, has now been fixed. For some enemies, the conditions for a special counter occurring, for example, when defeated) have been adjusted, and if there is event, it will trigger correctly without skipping. There is an issue where counter actions and events may no longer occur if three or more consecutive attacks are performed. We plan to fix this issue in future. Map/Event Adjustments Movement speed has been decreased for the ability ""Dash"". Black Chocobo movement patterns have been adjusted, making capture easier. Bug Fixes The following bugs have been fixed. We apologize profoundly for the inconvenience caused. Battle There were some cases where using the abilities ""Control"", ""Catch"" and ""Release"" in succession would cause the processing to slow down. There continue to be some cases where the behavior of ""Release"" is affected when the selected monster disappears before ""Catch"" is carried out, and a different monster is caught. Additionally, if a character leaves the party while monsters are caught, then they will have lost those monsters when they rejoin the party. We plan to fix these two issues in future. The turn order may have performed unusually when using the time magic spell ""Quick"" with the ability ""Dualcast"". The game may have performed unusually when the ability ""Mimic"" is used under certain conditions. Using the ability ""Lance"" on an enemy whose movements have been stopped would prevent the game from progressing further. There were some cases where parameter changes for abilities and equipment may not have been properly reflected. There were some cases where the ATB gauge was not correctly maintained when performing a counter action. The enemy skill ""Danse Macarbe"" also targeted party members who had temporarily left the battlefield. When using a “Gold Needle” against certain monsters like ""Stone Golems"", the game may have performed unusually, preventing the game from progressing further. There were some cases where the effect of the ""Gold Hairpin"" that reduces MP consumed by half did not function correctly. There were some cases where additional effects on equipped weapons did not occur correctly when afflicted with the ""Zombie"" status ailment, causing the game to perform unusually. The motion when using the ability ""Time Magic"" ""Iainuki"" was incorrect." Map/Events There were some cases where the battle with the boss monster, ""Necrophobe"", would not trigger under certain conditions. We have adjusted it so that this battle will trigger again if you load a save from before you entered the final floor, or if you load a completed game save created after this update has been released. If the bug has already occurred for you, then we apologize for the trouble, but ask you to use the above methods to resolve the issue. There were some cases where the landmass settings on the world map and the movement speeds for vehicles were not correct. The changes to landmass on the world map were not correct at a certain time. There was a place on the sea at the beginning of the game where unintended battle encounters would occur. There were some cases where you became unable to return to the vehicle that you were previously riding after certain events had occurred. After exiting certain dungeons, the teleport destination may have performed unusually when using ""Teleport"" from another location. In certain maps including the ""Tower of Walse"", moving whilst afflicted with the ""Toad"" or ""Mini"" status may have prevented the game from progressing further. There were some cases where certain conditions during dungeons or battles with a time limit would prevent the game from progressing further. There were some cases were certain control inputs would cause events to occur repeatedly. Reloading a quick save from certain points caused some battles that should have occurred to not trigger. Reloading a quick save from certain points prevented the game from progressing further. If you recovered to full HP (for example, by using a ""Cottage"") whilst afflicted with the ""Zombie"" status ailment, then you would become unable to cure it with ""Holy Water"". In the sound player, some songs had errors in their play time. We plan to continue performing updates in future, in addition to the content adjusted in this patch. Thank you for your ongoing support of FINAL FANTASY V and the Pixel Remaster series.
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  23. Fact of the Day - MASKS Stone mask from the pre-ceramic Neolithic period dates to 7000 BC Did you know.... that a mask is an object normally worn on the face, typically for protection, disguise, performance, or entertainment. Masks have been used since antiquity for both ceremonial and practical purposes, as well as in the performing arts and for entertainment. (Wikipedia) Interesting Facts about African Masks by admin | June 25, 2014 Carved wooden masks One of these following facts about African masks should give you much information about what kind of mask it is. Masks are sometimes considered as a ritual and ceremonial event. They are an essential feature of the traditional culture and art of the people of Sub-Saharan and West Africa. While the specific implications associated to ritual masks widely vary in different cultures, some traits are common to most African cultures: masks usually have a spiritual and religious meaning and they are used in ritual dances and social and religious events, and a special status is attributed to the artists that create masks and to those that wear them in ceremonies. To get to know more about the masks, here are some other facts about African masks you might like. 1. Influences Masks are one of the elements of African art that have most evidently influenced European and Western art in general; in the 20th century, artistic movements such as cubism, fauvism and expression have often taken inspiration from the vast and diverse heritage of African masks. 2. Ritual and Meanings In most traditional African cultures, the person who wears a ritual mask conceptually loses his or her human identity and turns into the spirit represented by the mask itself. This transformation of the mask wearer into a spirit usually relies on other practices, such as specific types of music and dance, or ritual costumes that contribute to conceal the mask-wearer’s human identity. Fang mask 3. Different Traditional Masks Since every mask has a specific spiritual meaning, most traditions comprise several different traditional masks. The traditional religion of the Dogon people of Mali, for example, comprises three main cults (the Awa or cult of the dead, the Bini or cult of the communication with the spirits, and the Lebe or cult of nature); each of these has its pantheon of spirits, corresponding to 78 different types of masks overall. 4. Subject and Style African masks are usually shaped after a human face or some animal’s muzzle, albeit rendered in a sometimes highly abstract form. The inherent lack of realism in African masks (and African art in general) is justified by the fact that most African cultures clearly distinguish the essence of a subject from its looks, the former, rather than the latter, being the actual subject of artistical representation. Female ancestor mask 5. Symbol Traits representing moral values are found in many cultures. Masks from the Senufo people of Ivory Coast, for example, have their eyes half closed, symbolizing a peaceful attitude, self-control, and patience. In Sierra Leone and elsewhere, small eyes and mouth represent humility, and a wide, protruding forehead represents wisdom. 6. Animals Animals are common subjects in African masks. Animal masks might actually represent the spirit of animals, so that the mask-wearer becomes a medium to speak to animals themselves (e.g. to ask wild beasts to stay away from the village); in many cases, nevertheless, an animal is also (sometimes mainly) a symbol of specific virtues. Ngond mask 7. Variation of the Animal-mask Theme A common variation on the animal-mask theme is the composition of several distinct animal traits in a single mask, sometimes along with human traits. Merging distinct animal traits together is sometimes a means to represent unusual, exceptional virtue or high status. 8. Feminine Mask Another common subject of African masks is a woman’s face, usually based on a specific culture’s ideal of feminine beauty. Female masks of the Punu people of Gabon, for example, have long curved eyelashes, almond-shaped eyes, thin chin, and traditional ornaments on their cheeks, as all these are considered good-looking traits. Feminine masks of the Baga people have ornamental scars and breasts. In many cases, wearing masks that represent feminine beauty is strictly reserved for men. Traditional Dogon mask 9. Mask of the Dead As the veneration of defunct ancestors is a fundamental element of most African traditional cultures, it is not surprising that the dead is also a common subject for masks. Masks referring to dead ancestors are most often shaped after a human skull. A well-known example is the mwana pwo (literally, “young woman”) of the Chokwe people (Angola), that mixes elements referring to feminine beauty (well-proportioned oval face, small nose and chin) and other referring to death (sunken eye sockets, cracked skin, and tears); it represents a female ancestor who died young, venerated in rites such as circumcision rites and ceremonies associated to the renewal of life. As veneration of the dead is most often associated with fertility and reproduction, many dead-ancestor masks also have sexual symbols; the ndeemba mask of the Yaka people (Angola and DR Congo), for example, is shaped after a skull complemented with a phallic-shaped nose. 10. Commercial Masks As African masks are largely appreciated by Europeans, they are widely commercialized and sold in most tourist-oriented markets and shops in Africa (as well as “ethnic” shops in the Western World). As a consequence, the traditional art of mask-making has gradually ceased to be a privileged, status-related practice, and mass production of masks has become widespread. While, in most cases, commercial masks are (more or less faithful) reproductions of traditional masks, this connection is weakening over time, as the logics of mass-production make it harder to identify the actual geographical and cultural origins of the masks found in such venues as curio shops and tourist markets. For example, the Okahandja market in Namibia mostly sells masks that are produced in Zimbabwe (as they are cheaper and more easily available than local masks), and, in turn, Zimbabwean mask-makers reproduce masks from virtually everywhere in Africa rather than from their own local heritage. Wood and copper mask Source: Wikipedia - Mask | Facts About African Masks
  24. What's the Word: IZZAT pronunciation: [IZ-ət] Part of speech: noun Origin: Arabic, unknown date Meaning: 1. Honor, reputation, or prestige. Example: "The new president’s experience increased the izzat of the nonprofit organization." "The diplomatic relationship has a great deal of izzat on both sides." About Izzat This word comes from Persian and Urdu, by way of the Arabic “izza,” meaning “glory.” Did You Know? The concept of “izzat” as a societal norm is most prevalent in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and northern India. It is applicable across all social classes, genders, communities, as well as the Muslim, Hindu, and Sikh religions. The idea of reciprocity is deeply embedded in izzat and requires a person to assist those who have helped that person earlier.
  25. Fact of the Day - BUZZ LIGHTYEAR Did you know.... that Buzz Lightyear is a fictional character in the Toy Story franchise created by Pixar. He is a toy Space Ranger superhero according to the movies and an action figure in the franchise. Along with his friend, Sheriff Woody, he is one of the two main characters in all four of the Toy Story animated movies. He also appeared in the direct-to-video film Buzz Lightyear of Star Command: The Adventure Begins and the television series, Buzz Lightyear of Star Command that was led from the film. Buzz Lightyear is voiced by Tim Allen in the Toy Story films, a few video games, and the Buzz Lightyear movie, while Patrick Warburton provides the voice for the TV series. Chris Evans is set to voice a human version of the character in the next film: Lightyear, which will explore his backstory. (Wikipedia) Facts About Buzz Lightyear From Toy Story Written by: Becca Marsh | Published on: March 30, 2021 Buzz Lightyear is famous as the spaceman who features in the Toy Story movies alongside Woody. But how did this intergalactic hero end up on earth, and how did he become so famous in the Disney universe? Here are 11 out of this world facts about Buzz Lightyear. Buzz was based on a “G.I Joe” character. Director John Lasseter wanted to create a character in the Toy Story universe with the same personality of a G.I Joe type of character, being a hero who saves the day, but he wanted a more modern appearance. There weren’t many space characters at the time, so the idea was born to create a character with a G.I. Joe personality, but with a space ranger look. The outfit design was based on the real Apollo 11 astronauts, with the skullcaps, white suits, and clear helmets. It is said that the purple and green on Buzz’s iconic outfit were the choice of Lasseter’s wife. Buzz Lightyear’s name was inspired by Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin. The character was originally called Luna Larry, but the producers thought that the name sounded a bit too wacky for the character they wanted to portray. After this name change, Pixar producers looked at different space terms to incorporate in the name, and Lightyear was chosen. They then decided to name him after Buzz Aldrin as an homage to the second person to walk on the moon. Buzz Aldrin even took a Buzz Lightyear toy to one of his speeches at NASA to showcase his links to the character. Aldrin has never received any endorsement fees for the use of his name. His significant other is Jessie. This might not have been obvious until the end of Toy Story 2, where Buzz shows how love-struck he is by Jessie. But Buzz is attracted to her adventurous personality, and throughout the Toy Story films, he looks out for Jessie and cares for her when she has her panic attacks. This affection is shown even more so when Buzz accidentally gets put into Spanish mode, where he refers to Jessie as “my desert flower” and dances around her. The couple share many adventures throughout the movies, some more successful than others, but they continue to comfort and stick by each other’s side. Buzz Lightyear’s enemy is Emperor Zurg. In the Toy Story movies, Buzz Lightyear has more than just one enemy. The likes of Sid Phillips and Stinky Pete are amongst them, but his true enemy is Emperor Zurg, also known as Evil Emperor Zurg. Within the Toy Story universe, Buzz Lightyear is archenemies with Zurg as he is the sworn enemy of the Galactic Alliance. Their relationship is simple, Zurg is the bad guy, and Buzz is the hero, but they have had several encounters in the movies, making the audience question their relationship. In Toy Story 2, Zurg expresses that he is Buzz’s father, but this is most likely a distraction so he can attack Buzz. It is suggested that Disney wanted to make a reference to Star Wars, recreating the famous scene with Luke Skywalker and Darth Vader, but it is not known if this is true or not. The character of Buzz has over 15 quotes. Buzz has many famous quotes in the Toy Story movies, but not all were used in the first Toy Story. As the movies developed, relationships changed, and the quotes evolved with the characters, but some of his most recognized quotes include; “I’ve set my laser from stun to kill,” “my eyeballs could have been sucked from their sockets,” and “this is an intergalactic emergency!” The first figure of Buzz Lightyear made in 1995 was released before the Toy Story film, and it was programmed with four quotes. These included the famous “to infinity and beyond,” “I am Buzz Lightyear,” “I come in peace,” and “Buzz Lightyear to the rescue!” Buzz’s most famous quote is “To infinity and beyond.” Possibly one of the most famous quotes of all time, “to infinity and beyond,” has been used in pop culture ever since the character made it famous. The quote originated from a book title “to infinity and beyond,” written by Eli Maor in 1991, 4 years before the release of Toy Story. The book explored the history of infinity and was perhaps the inspiration for Buzz’s quote. It has also appeared on t-shirts, merchandise, and even in pop songs. The lyrics “to infinity and beyond” feature in the famous “Singles Ladies” track from Beyoncé. The phrase even made international news in 2008. A father and son duo attempted a 15 hour long treading water record attempt in the Atlantic Ocean, and used it as their safety phrase to keep track of each other. There is an evil Buzz Lightyear. If you are familiar with the series Buzz Lightyear of Star Command, then you will know that Buzz has an evil version of himself from another universe. The evil Buzz Lightyear is said to be even eviler than Emperor Zurg, and in this alternate galaxy takes on the role of Zurg as evil emperor. His first appearance is in the episode called “The Lightyear Factor,” where Zurg’s brain pod opens a portal to an alternate universe. At the end of the episode, evil Buzz falls into the sun and is presumed dead until he makes an appearance at the end. Buzz has his own feature film and TV spin-off. Not only does Buzz feature as a main character within the Toy Story movies, but he has his own feature movie Buzz Lightyear of Star Command: The Adventure Begins, which was released on August 8, 2000. This movie was based on a miniseries called “Buzz Lightyear of Star Command,” which was Pixar’s first hand-drawn animated project. A video game based on the series was developed by Traveller's Tales in 2000 and was released for PlayStation, Game Boy Color, Dreamcast, and Microsoft Windows. The game allows you to control Buzz in his race to defeat his enemies. He has featured in other Pixar movies. Alongside other characters from Toy Story, Buzz has had the opportunity to feature in other Pixar shorts. The most memorable shorts he featured in are Hawaiian Vacation as well as Small Fry. Buzz also made an appearance in 2003 with the release of Finding Nemo as one of the toys next to the toy box in the dentist waiting room. Buzz has really been to space. We all know that Buzz Lightyear is a space ranger, so in the movies, he must have been to space. But in June 2008, a real-life 12 inch (30.5 centimeters) figure of Buzz Lightyear was sent into orbit. Buzz was sent to The International Space Station, where he remained in orbit for 467 days. He was sent up as part of an educational partnership between Disney and NASA which, alongside the space expedition, provided games, competitions, and video footage of Buzz floating in space for children. This Buzz figure can be visited in the National Air and Space Museum in Washington D.C. Buzz is number 1 in the top 20 greatest Pixar characters. In 2007 Buzz Lightyear was voted as the most favorite Pixar character of all time out of the top 20 characters by readers of the British magazine “Empire.” The magazine also rated him 94th in greatest characters of all time. Now you know more about this complex intergalactic spaceman, you can see how he has become one of the most recognizable characters in history. The Toy Story movies will continue to inspire and excite children across the world. Source: Wikipedia - Buzz Lightyear | Buzz Lightyear Facts
  26. https://freebies.indiegala.com/distortions Distortions is currently free on IndieGala.
  27. What's the Word: GERMINAL pronunciation: [DJUR-mə-nl] Part of speech: adjective Origin: Latin, early 19th century Meaning: 1. In the earliest stages of development. 2. Relating to or of the nature of a germ cell or embryo. Example: "The project was in a germinal phase." "Research and development is usually the germinal point of producing medicines." About Germinal This word stems from the Latin “germen,” or “germin-” meaning “sprout, seed” plus “-al,” a suffix meaning “relating to; of the kind of.” Did You Know? “Germinal” is also the name of the seventh month of the French Republican calendar (1793–1805), originally running from March 21 to April 19, and it is the title of a novel by famous French author Émile Zola. “Germinal,” the story of a coal miners' strike in the 1860s, is considered one of the most important pieces of French literature.
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